Richard Watmough

Richard Watmough

Richard Watmough was born in Idle in 1912. An outside-right he played non-league football before joining Bradford City in 1931. Over the next three years he scored 25 goals in 94 league games for the Second Division side.

In October 1934 Watmough was transferred to Blackpool. He was a regular scorer of goals but his greatest skill was in creating chances for others. In the 1936-37 season Watmough helped Blackpool get promotion to the First Division.

The following season he moved to Preston North End. It was a complex deal that involved Watmough and Jimmy McIntosh being exchanged for Frank O''Donnell.

In the 1937-38 season Preston North End challenged Arsenal for the First Division title. In the final match of the season the two teams played each other. During the game Jimmy Milne broke his collarbone in a collision with Alf Kirchen. Ten man Preston lost 3-1 and Arsenal won the championship.

Preston North End also got to the 1938 FA Cup Final against Huddersfield Town. This was the first time that a whole match was shown live on television. Even so, far more people watched the game in the stadium as only around 10,000 people at the time owned television sets. No goals were scored during the first 90 minutes and so extra-time was played. In the last minute of extra-time, Bill Shankly put George Mutch through on goal. Alf Young, Huddersfield's centre-half, brought him down from behind and the referee had no hesitation in pointing to the penalty spot. Mutch was injured in the tackle but after receiving treatment he got up and scored via the crossbar. It was the only goal in the game and Watmough won a cup winner's medal.

As a result of injuries Watmough did not make the first team during the 1938-39 season. He retired from football at the outbreak of the Second World War.

Richard Watmough died in 1962.


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Last name: Watmough

Recorded in many spellings including Whatmough, Watmough, Whatmore, Watmore, and even Whartmouth, this is an English surname. Recorded originally mainly in Yorkshire, it is of early medieval English origin. It seems locational but all researchers seem to agree that it is patronymic. It derives from the baptismal name "Watt", a short form of the popular Walter, introduced into England by the Normans at the Conquest of 1066 in the forms Waltier and Wautier. Both are developments of the pre 7th century Old Germanic name "Waldhari" composed of the elements "wald", meaning rule, and hari, an army. --> The second element is derived from the English term "maugh or mough", used of relatives, those connected by marriage rather than by blood, and it may also refer to another relative of either sex. Other examples of this type of name are Hickmott, Hudmaugh, and even Robertmogh, with William Robertmogh being recorded in Lancashire in 1332. Myles Watmough was recorded as vicar of Medomsley, Durham, in 1582, whilst Thomas Watmore, the son of John Watmore, was christened at St. Mary Whitechapel, Stepney, in the diocese of London, on May 12th 1689. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Watmaghe. This was dated 1379, in the "Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Richard 11nd, 1377 - 1399. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.

© Copyright: Name Origin Research 1980 - 2017


A History

Two-O-One was conceived as part and parcel of a grandiose idea known as Chelsea Corners. This grandiose master plan was the brainchild of Henry Mandel, the spiritual fore bearer of the swashbuckling builders and developers of today. (Think Donald Trump, with better hair). Mandel began buying all the big corner lots on 7th Avenue from approximately 23rd Street down to 14th Street. In his vision, apartment buildings built to his taste and specifications would grace all four corners of each intersection from 23rd down to 14th. Sounds quite grandiose and bold: but he was also bold enough, and influential enough, to convince the City of New York to stretch Park Avenue two important blocks south so that his building in that area could become 1 Park Avenue (which markets a lot better than 481 4th Avenue).

Mandel, who, with his father, Samuel, had emigrated from the Ukraine in the late 1880’s was only 43 when this burst of development was conceived and partially realized. At the same time, the Mandel family business, known as the Mandel Companies, began acquiring the land for the huge London Terrace project from Clement Clarke Moore (of “Twas the Night Before Christmas” fame). Their concept, as common as it is today, was new to Manhattan: smaller efficient dwellings in large complexes for white collar employees who wanted to live close to their places of employment. These potential residents were thought to be willing to trade the convenience of nearby transit services (the 7th Avenue line was finished in about 1910) for being in a prestigious, but less affordable and convenient neighborhood. The company even had constructed an “apartment shop” at 5th Avenue and 36th Street where full-sized apartments were completely set up, including furniture and appliances. Mandel even had sections of the exterior façade erected so that, according to Mandel, “Mrs. Prospect Can Select Her Apartment Just as She Would Select Her Car”.

Sales materials of the day for 201 claimed unique features: “a laundry in the basement is provided for use of residents who wish to have their own laundresses come in and do their work.” And this excerpt from the brochure touting the kitchens: “The Equipment represents the last word in comfort and modern facilities The Kitchen is laid out to save precious steps and speed the preparation of meals. It contains a large Electrolux refrigerator, thermostatically controlled——GAS for the refrigerator is furnished free”. You read correctly, a gas refrigerator. All of this modern convenience was available in a studio apartment for $40-a-month rent in 1930, including Elevator Operators, Doormen, Electric and Gas.

New York City, tax photo 1940

The Mandel Companies bravely persevered in attempting to rent space in their apartment buildings, even though the nation was in the throes of the deep and very long Great Depression. (H. Hoover: “Prosperity is Just Around the Corner”) Mandel’s cash dwindled daily, as a perfect storm formed, combining declining or missing rent payments, and worsening general economic conditions with the very significant cash outlays for completing his grandiose plans including the Park Vendome on 57th Street, London Terrace, The Lombardy on East 56th Street and the Pershing Square office building across from Grand Central Station– all during the greatest Depression the world had ever known! Not surprisingly (with the distancing perspective of history), the Mandel Companies were never able to complete their dream of Chelsea Corners or London Terrace—in 1932 the Mandel Companies and Henry Mandel himself filed for bankruptcy, listing assets of $382,000 (1932 dollars*) and liabilities of $14.0 million (1932 dollars*). As an indicative side note, Mandel wound up in jail for several months in 1933 for non-payment of alimony to his former wife.

Four buildings were completed as part of the Chelsea Corners vision: 161 West 16th, 200 West 16th, 201 West 16th, and 200 West 15th Street all of which went to separate owners as a result of the bankruptcy.

The Mandel Companies exclusive architects were Farrar & Watmough, whose signature design elements were steel casement windows. These unique windows of the day were considered to be a cut above the wooden double hung standard of the day, and also thought to “enliven” the façade of the buildings, along with the orange variegated brick on the facades. Each of the Mandel/Farrar & Watmough buildings exhibits some variation of that kind of bricking. Victor Farrar and Richard Watmough were also big fans of a sort of Tuscan-style semi-round arch windows and capitals. A tour of their buildings finds this design characteristic very much in evidence, including at 201.

Christopher Gray of the “New York Times” in 2004 described 161 and 201 as the “gatekeepers” for Chelsea Corners. He went on to note that three of the four Chelsea Corners buildings have opted to replace the original steel casement windows that so enlivened the facades with “one over one aluminum windows, which serve to deaden the liveliness that Farrar & Watmough sought to impart”. � West 16th Street has bucked the trend of the lowest common denominator and has just finished installing near-replicas of the original steel casement windows”. He continued, “The desire to do something more appropriate—as well as the design itself—gives the building life, while the standard replacement windows in the other buildings are just black eyes”. (Thank you Christopher Gray)

New York City tax photo, 1980

In February 1983, Francis Greenburger and his company, Time Equities, gained control of the building through a net lease with the intent of converting the building to cooperative ownership. In March of 1985, after much preparation and negotiations with the in-place tenants, the plan for Cooperative Ownership was declared effective and the ownership of the building transferred to the Cooperative.

One of the more difficult matters in the conversion of 201 to cooperative ownership was a hyper long-term commercial space lease, signed in 1980 by the next previous “owner” of the building. In exchange for a huge upfront payment, the then-owner of the building gave the commercial tenant complete control of the commercial space for more than two generations. The lease term totaled 40 years at very minimal rent Time Equities and the co-op were bound by law to honor this previous commitment. This was a popular tactic adopted in the meretricious years of co-op conversions in the 1980’s. Many of these leases were challenged in court, but most challenges failed. In 201’s case, the hyper long-term lease was with a real estate arm of Barneys, the international clothier located across the Avenue at the time though the store itself never took advantage of the commercial space. The intergenerational lease ends and the commercial space will revert to the cooperative corporation in 2020.

Through tumult and the passage of time, 201 retained a small bit of history from the ownership by Henry Mandel and the Mandel companies. Paul Mandel, who was Henry’s great nephew, and a published novelist, along with his wife Sheila, an editor at “Life”, lived in the Penthouse in the building until Paul’s untimely death in 1965 Sheila remained until her death in the mid 1980’s. Their son, Geoffrey, continued to occupy the Penthouse as a rent controlled tenant until it was sold by Time Equities in the mid-1990’s to an outside buyer.

In the Twenty- First Century, 201 continues to be known in real estate and architectural interest groups as a building that respects the vision of Henry Mandel, Victor Farrar and Richard Watmough through meticulous maintenance and restoration of the facades, windows and systems of the original building while at the same time maintaining a triple A financial rating. Henry Mandel’s dream lives on.

Past 201 Board Presidents

Chris Budinger
William Higgins
Clement Segal
Edward Lewis
Edward Gallion
Charles Sullivan

* $382,000 in 1932 equates to $5.6 Million in 2010 dollars. $14.0Million in 1932 equates to $207 Million in 2010 dollars.

References

Luxury Apartments Houses of Manhattan: An Illustrated History
by Andrew Alpern
January 1993

Chelsea Corners
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
July 2010

Boom, Slump, and Recovery
(Originally Published 1930’s)
Excerpted from portions appearing at www.oldandsold.com
Manhattan and New York City History.

Streetscapes: Seventh Avenue between 15th and 16th Streets Four 30’s Apartment Buildings on 4 Chelsea Corners
The New York Times
by Christopher Gray
May 23, 2004

Chelsea Corners Renting
The New York Times
May 16, 1931

Oral History
201 West 16th Street
Barbara Brazong 3C
July 2010

Oral History
201 West 16th Street
Everett Leiter 3F
October 2010

Cooperative Offering Plan
201 West 16th Street
New York, NY
May 4, 1984

Here, we present several photos of the south facade of the building, that have been magically merged into this artful photograph, using the app AutoStitch.


About Us

London Terrace Towers is composed of four corner buildings occupying both Ninth and Tenth Avenues between West 23 rd and West 24 th Streets in the heart of West Chelsea. An impressive array of building amenities include full-time lobby attendants, a half Olympic-sized heated indoor pool, private health club, steam rooms, saunas, roof deck, bike rooms, laundry facilities, and basement storage. A prime Chelsea location puts residents near the Hudson River Park, High Line Park and Chelsea Piers recreation center. It is convenient to the neighborhood’s seemingly endless collection of restaurants, clubs, and art galleries and has made London Terrace Towers a premier choice for downtown high style living.

Originally completed in 1930, the Towers became a co-operative corporation in 1988. (The buildings in the middle of the block remained as rental apartments and became known as London Terrace Gardens, which is a separate and independent building.)

The following is excerpted from Andrew Alpern’s “Luxury Apartment Houses of Manhattan”

The signs say “London Terrace” and the publicity releases proclaim “The Great Briton in Manhattan,” yet the buildings hark back to early Tuscan architecture and the traditions of Lombardy. Could the incongruity be nothing more than a marketing ploy to exploit perceptions of English charm?

The reality, in fact, lies in the whim of an old military man more than two centuries ago. Seeking a retirement home, Captain Thomas Clarke bought a large piece of the old Somerindyke farm in 1750 and named it Chelsea, after his native London’s Royal Hospital at Chelsea, where old soldiers spend their final years.

About midway between Ninth and Tenth Avenues, just south of what is now West 23rd Street, the captain built a “snug harbor” that he called the Chelsea House. By 1776, though, he was bedridden and near death. A fire destroyed his home that year, and soon he was gone too.

But the property stayed in the family. His widow rebuilt the house and defended it against British troops during the Revolutionary War, and remained there until her death in 1802. Her daughter, Charity, inherited the property.

She added it to the holdings of her husband, Benjamin Moore, the Episcopal bishop of New York and president of Columbia College. In 1813, the couple deeded the land and its buildings to their son, Clement Clarke Moore. Although the younger Moore’s life stretched from the middle of the Revolutionary War to the middle of the Civil War and included an impressive series of accomplishments, he is best known for having written in 1822, the magical poem that begins, “T’was the night before Christmas, when all through the house….”

Clement Moore was also a far-seeing businessman who understood good urban planning and canny real estate development. With his friends James N. Wells, a local real-estate broker, Moore carefully divided his lands into lots conforming to the new street pattern and sold them for fine residences. To establish suitable neighbors, he donated an entire block to the General Theological Seminary (whose buildings and grounds are redolent of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge) and gave land on West 20th Street to St. Peter’s Episcopal Church for a rectory and a sanctuary.

He then began a major development project encompassing the block from West 23rd to 24th streets and Ninth to Tenth Avenues. On the shady West 24th Street frontage he built the Chelsea Cottages: wood framed two-story housed for working people. The entire West 23rd Street frontage was improved with 36 grand brownstone row houses, all set well back from the pavement behind hedges and trees. Each dwelling was designed in the popular Greek Revival style, creating a uniform vista of three-storied pilasters and recessed spandrels with Greek key carving. Completed in 1845, the development was called London Terrace, expanding on the English allusion first expounded by Captain Clark almost a century before.

Moore insisted on high-quality constructions, raising the value of his remaining property. Recognizing this, he razed the family seat across from London Terrace in 1853 and sold the land. On the site, elaborate row houses were built in the flamboyant Anglo-Italianate style. Facing the then-still-new London Terrace, these later houses quickly earned the sobriquet “Millionaires’ Row.”

Moore died in 1863, but because of the complexities of his real-estate holdings, his estate was not settled until 1907. That was a year of financial panic (what we might today call a serious recession), which marked the beginning of the original London Terrace’s decline.

In the following years, what had been expensive one-family homes were subdivided into rooming houses and apartments. Extra floors were added to several of the buildings, and some were thrown together as institutions. Three midblock houses formed the Agnes Cloud Residence, while three more near Tenth Avenue were combined with a trio of West 24th Street cottages to form the School for Social Research “campus”.

As the buildings declined, however, the land value rose. Developer Henry Mandel recognized this and gradually acquired control of the block. By 1929 he had it all, at least on paper. Gaining actual possession, though, proved more difficult. He had not reckoned on Tillie Hart.

Hart lived at 429 West 23rd Street on a sublease that, she asserted, was valid until May 1930. The underlying prime lease had already expired, however, giving Mandel the legal right of possession. But Hart steadfastly refused to move, despite the demolition going on around her.

By October 1929, Mandel had demolished all the existing structures except Hart’s. Her increasingly histrionic tactics were duly reported in the newspapers, with her lawyers delaying the matter in court while she barricaded herself in, and pelted any would-be intruders with bricks and stones. The sheriffs managed to enter on October 25, however, and placed all Hart’s belongings on the front pavement. Obstinate to the last, she spent that night in the house sleeping on newspapers spread out on the floor. The following day she finally abandoned the fight, and the wreckers demolished the house in short order

Mandel, the spiritual forebear of the flamboyant builders of today, had recently completed two hotels and his luxury Park Avenue cooperative building. For his newly vacant block, he had decided to erect what was to be the largest apartment house New York City had even seen.

Mandel hired the architectural firm of Farrar & Watmough, a partnership formed in 1925 by Victor Farrar and Richard Watmough. Pleased with the round-arched and highly ornamental Tuscan style he had used repeatedly before, Mandel instructed the architects to use it for the new project.

An early scheme called for 12 buildings of 16 stories each along West 23rd and 24th streets, with a singly cross-shaped tower rising more than twice the height of the rest at Ninth Avenue. The landscaped center was to be protected on the Tenth Avenue side by a modest two-story structure.

The later plan, which was eventually realized, comprised ten midblock buildings with taller and bulkier structures at all four corners. The inner court was foreshortened to allow for a large, enclosed swimming pool at Tenth Avenue end and an equally large restaurant at the other. The design was accepted by the city’s Department of Buildings under the old tenement-house law of 1901. (With the more urbanistically sensitive multiple-dwelling law of 1929, the structures would not have been permitted to rise so high without setbacks.)

Mandel’s project was completed in two phases, with the ten smaller buildings finished in 1930 and the four corner towers constructed the following year. Despite the distinctively Southern Italian design and detailing, the complex picked the old name, London Terrace. Professor Moore himself was remembered at the cornerstone-laying ceremony, with his 15-year-old great-great-grandson doing the honors with the trowel. It was even asserted at the time that the cornerstone itself had come from the Moore’s family manse Chelsea House (unlikely, since that building had been demolished some 66 years earlier).

The buildings contained, within a single block, an astounding 1665 apartments. Most were either studios or one-bedrooms, with only a few large apartments in the corner buildings and at the terraced levels. With more than 4000 residential rooms, the density was vastly more than the worst slums of Calcutta.

Yet London Terrace’s special amenities were attractive: a 75-by-35-foot indoor swimming pool with balconied viewing galleries and adjoining locker rooms a supervised rooftop play area for children an equipped gymnasium a penthouse recreational club a sun deck for infants a courtyard garden and a marine deck fitted out and furnished as if it were part of a great ocean liner. Set 21 stories above the street, this last element allowed residents to look down on the real life ships that docked a few blocks away.

Besides ready access to the on-site shops and services via the internal tunnels that connected the entire complex, residents could use and array of free services including: page boys for delivering message within the complex or running nearby errands a telephone-message-receiving service that would bring the message slips to the apartments and a mail-and-package room that would deliver to the apartments on call.

Topping the list of tenants who enjoyed these services were secretaries (202 of them), as well as engineers, attorneys, accountants and “presidents of companies.” They paid on average $30 monthly rent per room.

That seemingly low rate was possible only through imaginative marketing and “selectivity” in management. According to a contemporary report by the renting agent, William A. White & Sons, “Restrictions are especially important in London Terrace … [and] a careful check of business, social and financial references is made before leases are signed.” Notwithstanding that care, the Great Depression, which struck just as London Terrace was being completed, forced developer Mandel into personal bankruptcy in 1932 and precipitated foreclosure in 1934. A magazine article early in that year described this nightmarish financial morass, noting that “nobody is clear as to who owns what and what what is worth.”

The claims, counterclaims and changes in the title went on until 1945, when the ownership of the original ten buildings and the four corner towers was split. London Terrace Gardens (the inner buildings) continued as a rental. London Terrace Towers was eventually converted to a combination condominium-co-op (a con-dop). Under this scheme, a one-bedroom apartment that once rented for $90 a month was offered in 1988 for $150,000 to buy, with a monthly carrying change of $725. Taking into account what most New Yorkers earned in 1930s, the relative cost of that apartment probably has not changed all that much.

The four converted and renovated buildings are now called The Towers at London Terrace, and are marketed as “The Great Briton in Manhattan.” With advertisements featuring period photographs of Henry Mandel’s original doormen dressed as London “bobbies” (shades of Trump Tower’s original busby-hatted door attendants) and the emphasis on England in the promotional efforts, it would appear that the perceptions of English charm have remained constant of the intervening years. Old Captain Thomas Clarke would have been proud.

BuildingLink Access

Useful Phone Numbers

Management Office: (212) 675-2000
Resident Manager: (212) 675-4003
405 Lobby: (212) 675-2001
410 Lobby: (212) 675-2002
465 Lobby: (212) 675-2003
470 Lobby: (212) 675-2004


Brick and Glass in New York Apartment Buildings

Click here to see a slide show of New York apartment buildings.

The Perry Street Towers, by Richard Meier, 2003

This pair of new apartment buildings designed by Richard Meier is the rarest of things in Manhattan: distinctive, original residential architecture. One of the last of the Modernists, Meier here has dropped his usual preference for solid-white buildings and instead designed see-through ones. Meier has taken Modernist patriarch Philip Johnson’s “Glass House” and stretched it into apartment buildings. The Perry Street towers doubtless have their flaws. Their chic residents such as Nicole Kidman and Calvin Klein are completely exposed in their full-story apartments until they add some curtains. But the building’s emphasis on views fits its location overlooking the Hudson River. The apartments sell as unfinished concrete shells for several million dollars Klein paid a reported $14 million for the three-story penthouse.

In the hip Meatpacking District just north of the Meier building, architect Gregg Pasquarelli of SHOP architects has placed a six-story, gunmetal-gray box at an off-angle on top of a renovated older brick building. The juxtaposition of styles is jarring and original. The most daring touch is the placing of flat, rectangular electric lights at irregular intervals on the exterior of the building and in the hallways. These make the Porter House one of the most visually distinctive buildings in the city.

Unlike the Porter House and Perry Street buildings, most new apartment buildings in Manhattan are flat brick boxes, virtually undistinguishable from one another. They have gone up all over Manhattan. As is the case with suburban McMansions, these buildings’ developers eschew distinctive architecture and prefer to put their attention and money into interior “hot button” finishes like “Brazilian granite countertops and stainless steel appliances,” as one ad for a particularly dull building described its kitchens.

Current construction techniques also influence form, as they always have. At architecture’s highest end, advanced software has enabled architects like Frank Gehry to build swirling, rotating buildings that seem to spring straight from their imagination to the ground. But most developers of “average” luxury apartments use poured concrete or “slab” construction. Workers create floors and supporting pillars by pouring concrete into wooden molds filled with iron strands of rebar. Once that process is finished, so is the building, just about. Slap a carpet down on the horizontal concrete slab and you have a finished floor. Brush some white paint on the underside and you have a ceiling.

Unlike in older, steel-frame construction methods, workers do not have to add floors and ceilings as a separate step. In the older method, it did not cost a lot more money to add a bay window or other details. In addition, thick steel girders left a foot or more of space between floors that could be used for soffits, interior arches, domed ceilings, and other decorative touches. But construction techniques do not invariably dictate how buildings will look. The Perry Street apartments are made of poured concrete, but Meier chose to shape the buildings into off-angled, four-sided towers, and to face them with glass rather than with more conventional solutions like red brick over cinder blocks.

The Tate, by the Rockwell Group, 2003

Despite their plainness, the brick-and-glass blocks have become icons of style. In the hit show Queer Eye for the Straight Guy, the camera usually pans on a classic brick-and-glass structure—the Tate apartment building on 23 rd and 10 th Avenue (shown here)—just before the show’s five fashion experts gather in a living room to watch how their makeover victim fares. The implication seems to be that this building is something to be envied. What’s amazing is that would-be fashionistas are paying $4,000 a month to rent tiny one-bedroom apartments whose exterior is so unremarkable and whose nondescript interiors look stolen from the nearest budget motel.

The Westminster, by Robert A.M. Stern Architects, 2003

Timid developers, standard construction methods, and undiscriminating buyers push even famous architects to design what are essentially modified brick-and-glass boxes. Robert Stern, dean of the Yale architecture school and the country’s reigning classicist, designed “the Westminster” shown here at 7 th Avenue and 21 st, Street. From a distance, it resembles a stack of children’s blocks, which is a nice effect, and its large windows make the small apartments feel bigger. But the appliqué of Art Deco doodads on the exterior doesn’t change its conventional brick exterior and standard rectangular form.

425 5th Avenue, by Michael Graves

Michael Graves, now almost as famous for designing teakettles and toasters as buildings, has produced the 54-story “425 5 th Avenue” apartment tower at 38 th street in Midtown. A yellow stick in the sky, it recalls the lean brick Art Deco office towers from the 1920s nearby, like the original General Electric building on Lexington Avenue and 50 th Street. But given the possibilities open to architects today, cladding the building in standard brick and using almost nothing but right angles is pretty conventional. The apartments, which cost from $500,000 for a tiny studio up to $10 million for the penthouse, have relatively low ceilings and boxy dimensions.

The Ansonia Building, by Paul M. DuBoy, 1904

The luxury apartment house was actually invented in New York in the late 19 th century, when it used to embody a tradition of bold design. Pictured here is the Ansonia, an “apartment-hotel” at Broadway and 73 rd , built in 1904. It originally had 2,500 rooms, a ballroom, a dining hall that seated 550 people, and an indoor swimming pool, at the time the world’s largest. To live here was to take part in a radical transformation of the city. Elizabeth Hawes in her book New York, New York: How the Apartment House Transformed the Life of the City (1869-1930), describes how in 1870, 90 percent of upper-class New Yorkers lived in townhouses and other styles of single-family homes. By 1930, 90 percent lived in apartments. To lure potential tenants, developers borrowed the word “apartment” from the French to make the new buildings sound more fashionable. The word and the lifestyle stuck.

The Dakota, pictured here, was another of the early grand apartment houses, built amid the then empty fields of the Upper West Side in 1890. Each apartment had 15-foot ceilings, mahogany paneling, and chandeliers. One apartment had 17 carved-marble fireplaces. This Beaux Art style architecture, which emerged from the French academy and was popular in the late 19 th century, is hardly subtle, but it had a sense of theater and fun that’s missing from most new buildings. Apartment-house living spread from New York to the rest of the country. The Virginian-Pilot in Norfolk in 1911 reported that “The age of the apartment house life has come here to stay,” and that “any stigma that might be attached to a tenement dweller, any social descendency that be held against the flatite, has no reflection upon the apartment house family.”

But times changed. There was a nice Art Deco interlude between the wars, as exhibited in the London Terrace Gardens, constructed in 1929 on West 23 rd Street and 9 th Avenue. But after World War II the New York apartment building started shedding its complexities until it was reduced to its bare essentials: flat panels of brick and glass, lacking shape, color, texture, and ornament.

But things may be changing. Meier’s Perry Street and Pasqarelli’s Porter House buildings have sold out at prices per square foot considerably higher than average. This may prompt more developers to realize that adding creative, original architecture can mean more money in their pockets, and this may eventually improve the skyline and streets of this city and others.


Richard Watmough - History

The signs say "London Terrace" and the publicity releases proclaim "The Great Briton in Manhattan," yet the buildings hark back to early Tuscan architecture and the traditions of Lombardy. Could the incongruity be nothing more than a marketing ploy to exploit perceptions of English charm?

The reality, in fact, lies in the whim of an old military man more than two centuries ago. Seeking a retirement home, Captain Thomas Clarke bought a large piece of the old Somerindyke farm in 1750 and named it Chelsea, after his native London's Royal Hospital at Chelsea, where old soldiers spend their final years.

About midway between Ninth and Tenth Avenues, just south of what is now West 23rd Street, the captain built a "snug harbor" that he called the Chelsea House. By 1776, though, he was bedridden and near death. A fire destroyed his home that year, and soon he was gone too.

But the property stayed in the family. His widow rebuilt the house and defended it against British troops during the Revolutionary War, and remained there until her death in 1802. Her daughter, Charity, inherited the property.

She added it to the holdings of her husband, Benjamin Moore, the Episcopal bishop of New York and president of Columbia College. In 1813, the couple deeded the land and its buildings to their son, Clement Clarke Moore. Although the younger Moore's life stretched from the middle of the Revolutionary War to the middle of the Civil War and included an impressive series of accomplishments, he is best known for having written in 1822, the magical poem that begins, "T'was the night before Christmas, when all through the house. "

Clement Moore was also a far-seeing businessman who understood good urban planning and canny real estate development. With his friends James N. Wells, a local real-estate broker, Moore carefully divided his lands into lots conforming to the new street pattern and sold them for fine residences. To establish suitable neighbors, he donated an entire block to the General Theological Seminary (whose buildings and grounds are redolent of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge) and gave land on West 20th Street to St. Peter's Episcopal Church for a rectory and a sanctuary.

He then began a major development project encompassing the block from West 23rd to 24th streets and Ninth to Tenth Avenues. On the shady West 24th Street frontage he built the Chelsea Cottages: wood framed two-story housed for working people. The entire West 23rd Street frontage was improved with 36 grand brownstone row houses, all set well back from the pavement behind hedges and trees. Each dwelling was designed in the popular Greek Revival style, creating a uniform vista of three-storied pilasters and recessed spandrels with Greek key carving. Completed in 1845, the development was called London Terrace, expanding on the English allusion first expounded by Captain Clark almost a century before.

Moore insisted on high-quality constructions, raising the value of his remaining property. Recognizing this, he razed the family seat across from London Terrace in 1853 and sold the land. On the site, elaborate row houses were built in the flamboyant Anglo-Italianate style. Facing the then-still-new London Terrace, these later houses quickly earned the sobriquet "Millionaires' Row."

Moore died in 1863, but because of the complexities of his real-estate holdings, his estate was not settled until 1907. That was a year of financial panic (what we might today call a serious recession), which marked the beginning of the original London Terrace's decline.

In the following years, what had been expensive one-family homes were subdivided into rooming houses and apartments. Extra floors were added to several of the buildings, and some were thrown together as institutions. Three midblock houses formed the Agnes Cloud Residence, while three more near Tenth Avenue were combined with a trio of West 24th Street cottages to form the School for Social Research "campus".

As the buildings declined, however, the land value rose. Developer Henry Mandel recognized this and gradually acquired control of the block. By 1929 he had it all, at least on paper. Gaining actual possession, though, proved more difficult. He had not reckoned on Tillie Hart.

Hart lived at 429 West 23rd Street on a sublease that, she asserted, was valid until May 1930. The underlying prime lease had already expired, however, giving Mandel the legal right of possession. But Hart steadfastly refused to move, despite the demolition going on around her.

By October 1929, Mandel had demolished all the existing structures except Hart's. Her increasingly histrionic tactics were duly reported in the newspapers, with her lawyers delaying the matter in court while she barricaded herself in, and pelted any would-be intruders with bricks and stones. The sheriffs managed to enter on October 25, however, and placed all Hart's belongings on the front pavement. Obstinate to the last, she spent that night in the house sleeping on newspapers spread out on the floor. The following day she finally abandoned the fight, and the wreckers demolished the house in short order

Mandel, the spiritual forebear of the flamboyant builders of today, had recently completed two hotels and his luxury Park Avenue cooperative building. For his newly vacant block, he had decided to erect what was to be the largest apartment house New York City had even seen.

Mandel hired the architectural firm of Farrar & Watmough, a partnership formed in 1925 by Victor Farrar and Richard Watmough. Pleased with the round-arched and highly ornamental Tuscan style he had used repeatedly before, Mandel instructed the architects to use it for the new project.

An early scheme called for 12 buildings of 16 stories each along West 23rd and 24th streets, with a singly cross-shaped tower rising more than twice the height of the rest at Ninth Avenue. The landscaped center was to be protected on the Tenth Avenue side by a modest two-story structure.

The later plan, which was eventually realized, comprised ten midblock buildings with taller and bulkier structures at all four corners. The inner court was foreshortened to allow for a large, enclosed swimming pool at Tenth Avenue end and an equally large restaurant at the other. The design was accepted by the city's Department of Buildings under the old tenement-house law of 1901. (With the more urbanistically sensitive multiple-dwelling law of 1929, the structures would not have been permitted to rise so high without setbacks.)

Mandel's project was completed in two phases, with the ten smaller buildings finished in 1930 and the four corner towers constructed the following year. Despite the distinctively Southern Italian design and detailing, the complex picked the old name, London Terrace. Professor Moore himself was remembered at the cornerstone-laying ceremony, with his 15-year-old great-great-grandson doing the honors with the trowel. It was even asserted at the time that the cornerstone itself had come from the Moore's family manse Chelsea House (unlikely, since that building had been demolished some 66 years earlier).

The buildings contained, within a single block, an astounding 1665 apartments. Most were either studios or one-bedrooms, with only a few large apartments in the corner buildings and at the terraced levels. With more than 4000 residential rooms, the density was vastly more than the worst slums of Calcutta.

Yet London Terrace's special amenities were attractive: a 75-by-35-foot indoor swimming pool with balconied viewing galleries and adjoining locker rooms a supervised rooftop play area for children an equipped gymnasium a penthouse recreational club a sun deck for infants a courtyard garden and a marine deck fitted out and furnished as if it were part of a great ocean liner. Set 21 stories above the street, this last element allowed residents to look down on the real life ships that docked a few blocks away.

Besides ready access to the on-site shops and services via the internal tunnels that connected the entire complex, residents could use and array of free services including: page boys for delivering message within the complex or running nearby errands a telephone-message-receiving service that would bring the message slips to the apartments and a mail-and-package room that would deliver to the apartments on call.

Topping the list of tenants who enjoyed these services were secretaries (202 of them), as well as engineers, attorneys, accountants and "presidents of companies." They paid on average $30 monthly rent per room.

That seemingly low rate was possible only through imaginative marketing and "selectivity" in management. According to a contemporary report by the renting agent, William A. White & Sons, "Restrictions are especially important in London Terrace . [and] a careful check of business, social and financial references is made before leases are signed." Notwithstanding that care, the Great Depression, which struck just as London Terrace was being completed, forced developer Mandel into personal bankruptcy in 1932 and precipitated foreclosure in 1934. A magazine article early in that year described this nightmarish financial morass, noting that "nobody is clear as to who owns what and what what is worth."

The claims, counterclaims and changes in the title went on until 1945, when the ownership of the original ten buildings and the four corner towers was split. London Terrace Gardens (the inner buildings) continued as a rental. London Terrace Towers was eventually converted to a combination condominium-co-op (a con-dop). Under this scheme, a one-bedroom apartment that once rented for $90 a month was offered in 1988 for $150,000 to buy, with a monthly carrying change of $725. Taking into account what most New Yorkers earned in 1930s, the relative cost of that apartment probably has not changed all that much.

The four converted and renovated buildings are now called The Towers at London Terrace, and are marketed as "The Great Briton in Manhattan." With advertisements featuring period photographs of Henry Mandel's original doormen dressed as London "bobbies" (shades of Trump Tower's original busby-hatted door attendants) and the emphasis on England in the promotional efforts, it would appear that the perceptions of English charm have remained constant of the intervening years. Old Captain Thomas Clarke would have been proud.

"Luxury Apartment Houses of Manhattan: An Illustrated History"
by Andrew Alpern
Publisher: Dover Publications, Incorporated
Pub. Date: January 1993
ISBN: 0486273709

London Terrace Tatler - May 1933

Three Years Of It By "Ye Olde Tenant"
May 1, 1930. A big day at London Terrace -- new London Terrace.

London Terrace in the Making
There have been may "big days" since, but this was an all-important one, for on that day, the doors of the first completed unit -- 455 were opened and Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Braney, a most engaging young couple, moved in as the first tenants, pioneer residents in the largest project of its kind.

London Terrace then didn't look like the London Terrace of today. To tell the truth, those early residents had the real pioneer spirit. They had to have it. The 455 and 460 buildings were the only two ready for occupancy. Carpenters, plasterers, painters and what have you were everywhere in the other garden units. The garden was piled with lumber and other materials. There was no grass. Every gentle spring zephyr swirled clouds of dust through the open windows. For eight hours every day, there was the noise of construction -- din would be a better word. But the pioneers took it all smiling and their numbers increased steadily as each month witnessed the opening of two more units.

In those days, the sites of the present corner buildings were merely holes in the ground. Even the foundations had not been set and no steel work had been stated. But, by October 1, which was the next big moving day, there were more than 700 families in the Terrace. With October 1 also, came that distinctive show, now regrettably gone -- this being deflated 1933 -- the dress parade of the uniformed service. By this time, of course, the garden had become a garden, and every afternoon at 4:45, the peal of a bugle would sound from the vicinity of the fountain and all the bobbies and patrolmen would line up for the changing of the guard. It was a highly impressive affair. So impressive in fact that one six-year-old visitor at the Terrace, on hearing the bugle and rushing to the window to see the military spectacle, cried, "Mamma, come quick. The London Terrors are going to parade."

Christmas Eve Festivities

Christmas Eve was the next big day for London Terrace. On that bitterly cold evening in 1930 was dedicated the bronze tablet in the garden containing a facsimile of the original manuscript of "The Night Before Christmas", as a permanent Christmas shrine. No one who was there will ever forget the beauty of that festival. At the west end of the garden, a canopied platform had been erected and just as the candle-lighting ceremony was begun, the thousands of visitors -- and there were thousands -- who gathered before the platform heard the strains of the Christmas carols from the throats of a large boys' chorus and from that moment until the ceremonies ended and Santa Claus came down the chimney to deliver his gifts to the children, the garden radiated with real Christmas spirit.

There have been many "big days" and many amusing episodes in the life of the Terrace since, some not so amusing. Queer things always happen in apartment buildings. I recall the day when one tenant, in a somewhat befuddled condition, sat gaily on the window sill of her 10th floor apartment, feet dangling over the garden side and announced to the world at large that she was about to jump out, only to be prevented at the last moment by a highly excited sergant of the guard.

Then there was the tragically humorous episode of the fair tenant, who, on a Saturday afternoon, stood in the middle of her living room on the first floor of 420 and hurled all the bottles, glass-ware and china in the apartment through the window, without bothering first to open the window, until there were a few square yards of debris in the garden. She was finally corralled and taken away, never to return.

And who, of those who were here then, doesn't remember the famous machine gun scare, when twice within the space of a wee, the garden, shortly after midnight resounded with the unmistakable rat-tat-tat of a sub-Tommy? Every window was filled with excited inquires and the patrolmen were scurrying in all direction in the darkness, until it developed that someone in a playful mood had dropped packages of lighted firecrackers into the garden. But it was funny only after the cause had been revealed. Like the heroines of the two previously mentioned incidents, the playful one also vanished from our midst.

There have been many pleasant "firsts" at the Terrace -- the first Christmas party, the first big meet in the swimming pool, the first night at the dining room, the first penthouse party, held on a blazing hot night in June 1931 which eventually resulted in the present delightful Penthouse Club, and many others.


Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough

Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough founded Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd. Presently, Mr. Watmough is Executive Director, Director-Sales & Purchasing at this company. He is also on the board of Eurostar Group Holdings Ltd.

Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd.

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Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd. is a private company headquartered in Newcastle-under-Lyme, UK. The firm distributes and supplies mobile phones and accessories products. It was founded in 2007 by Peter James Carnall and Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough. Peter James Carnall has been the CEO since the inception date.The company says this a bout itself: We are the UK’s leading Independent, UK and International Mobile Phone Distributor. Professionally, we supply tailored services to our vendors and tailored products to our customers.

Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough is affiliated with Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd.

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Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough

Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough founded Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd. Presently, Mr. Watmough is Executive Director, Director-Sales & Purchasing at this company. He is also on the board of Eurostar Group Holdings Ltd.

Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd.

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Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd. is a private company headquartered in Newcastle-under-Lyme, UK. The firm distributes and supplies mobile phones and accessories products. It was founded in 2007 by Peter James Carnall and Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough. Peter James Carnall has been the CEO since the inception date.The company says this a bout itself: We are the UK’s leading Independent, UK and International Mobile Phone Distributor. Professionally, we supply tailored services to our vendors and tailored products to our customers.

Brett Richard Llewellyn Watmough is affiliated with Eurostar Global Electronics Ltd.

Stay informed and up-to-date on your network with RelSci news and business alerting service. Nurture your network and further your business goals with smart intelligence on the people and companies that matter most to you.

Browse in-depth profiles on 12 million influential people and organizations. Find RelSci relationships, employment history, board memberships, donations, awards, and more.

Explore notable alumni from top universities and organizations. Expand your fundraising pool and make warm introductions to potential new business connections.

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Browse in-depth profiles on 12 million influential people and organizations. Find RelSci relationships, employment history, board memberships, donations, awards, and more.

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Last name: Whatmough

This curious and rare name, found mainly in Yorkshire, is of early medieval English origin, and derives from a distinguishing name for someone who was related in some way to a bearer of the male given name "Wat(t)". The latter was very popular in medieval Britain, and is a short form of Walter, the male personal name introduced into England by the Normans after the Conquest of 1066 in the forms "Walt(i)er" and "Waut(i)er", adopted from the Old Germanic name composed of the elements "wald", rule, with "heri, hari", army. --> The second element of the surname Watmough is derived from the Middle English term "maugh, mough", used of various relatives, normally those connected by marriage rather than by blood, so that the surname is often taken to mean "Wat's brother-in-law", but may also refer to another relative of either sex. Other examples of this type of name in Yorkshire and Lancashire are Hickmott or Hitchmough, and William Robertmogh, recorded in Lancashire in 1332. One Myles Watmough was recorded as vicar of Medomsley, Durham, in 1582. The modern surname forms are W(h)atmough, W(h)atmaugh, W(h)atmuff and Whar(t)mouth. A Coat of Arms granted to a family of the name depicts three green branches of wheat on a silver shield the Crest is a black ferret passant collared gold, lined red. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert Watmaghe, which was dated 1379, in the "Poll Tax Returns of Yorkshire", during the reign of King Richard 11, known as "Richard of Bordeaux", 1377 - 1399. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling.

© Copyright: Name Origin Research 1980 - 2017


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