Dmitri Furmanov

Dmitri Furmanov


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Dmitri Furmanov was born in Russia in 1891. During the Civil War he joined the Red Army and served as a Bolshevik commissar. His first novel, Chapayev (1923) was based on his experiences fighting under General Chapayev. The book was highly praised by the critics and is considered a major classic of Soviet literature.

Issac Babel commented: "Chapayev, which sold hundreds of thousands of copies, didn't fully satisfy Furmanov. He was growing rapidly. Each month his talent as a writer expanded. Remember what his life was - he never chose the line of least resistance. Before the Revolution he fought against the Tsarist regime; after the Revolution he went to the front; after the front he picked for himself the most dangerous sector - the sector where the battle over poetry and art was being fought."

Furmanov died in 1926.

Chapayev, which sold hundreds of thousands of copies, didn't fully satisfy Furmanov. Before the Revolution he fought against the Tsarist regime; after the Revolution he went to the front; after the front he picked for himself the most dangerous sector - the sector where the battle over poetry and art was being fought.


Dmitriy Furmanov (ship)

The Dmitriy Furmanov ( Russian Дмитрий Фурманов ) (German: Dmitri Furmanow) is a river cruise ship that was built in 1983 in the GDR in the VEB Elbewerften Boizenburg / Roßlau in Boizenburg and belongs to the Dmitriy Furmanov class , project 302, series I. The German name was BiFa 129М (inland passenger ship 129 meters) and the hull number 378. The ship was named after the Soviet writer Dmitri Furmanov , and the Dmitriy Furmanov gave her name to the whole class.


Dmitri Furmanov

Dmitri Andrejevitš Furmanov (ven. Дми́трий Андре́евич Фу́рманов 7. marraskuuta (J: 26. lokakuuta) 1891 Sereda, nykyinen Furmanov – 15. maaliskuuta 1926 Moskova [1] ) oli venäläinen neuvostokirjailija.

Dmitri Furmanov syntyi porvarissäätyyn siirtyneen talonpojan perheeseen. Hän kävi koulua Ivanovo-Voznesenskissa ja Kinešmassa ja opiskeli vuodesta 1912 lähtien Moskovan yliopiston historiallis-kielitieteellisessä tiedekunnassa. Vuonna 1915 hän lähti vapaaehtoisena lääkintämieheksi ensimmäisen maailmansodan rintamalle. Lokakuusta 1916 Furmanov työskenteli opettajana Ivanovo-Voznesenskissa. Siellä hän osallistui vuoden 1917 vallankumoustapahtumiin ensin sosialistivallankumouksellisena ja sitten anarkistina. [1]

Kesällä 1918 Furmanov liittyi bolševikkipuolueeseen ja työskenteli sen jälkeen Mihail Frunzen avustajana Venäjän kansalaissodassa. Maalis-heinäkuussa 1919 hän oli komissaarina Vasili Tšapajevin divisioonassa. Myöhemmin hän toimi poliittisissa tehtävissä Turkestanin rintamalla ja osallistui sotatoimiin Vernyissä (nykyinen Almaty) ja Kubanilla. Heinäkuussa 1921 Furmanov asettui Moskovaan, jossa hän työskenteli kustannustoimittajana ja suoritti loppuun opintonsa yliopistossa. [1]

Furmanovin ensimmäiset runot julkaistiin jo kouluaikana, mutta vakituista kirjallista toimintaa hän alkoi harjoittaa vasta 1920-luvun alussa. Hänen pääteoksensa on kansalaissodan sankarihahmosta Vasili Tšapajevista kertova dokumenttiromaani Tšapajev (1923), [1] jota pidettiin yhtenä neuvostokirjallisuuden alkuvaiheen merkittävimmistä saavutuksista. Georgi ja Sergei Vasiljev ohjasivat vuonna 1934 romaaniin perustuvan samannimisen menestyselokuvan. [2]

Furmanovin romaanit, novellit ja kertomukset ovat aatteellisia, omakohtaisia ja dokumenttipohjaisia kansalaissodan kuvauksia. Hän toimi Moskovan proletaarikirjailijoiden yhdistyksen sihteerinä ja oli yksi Venäjän proletaarikirjailijoiden yhdistyksen perustajista. Hän kuoli influenssan jälkitautiin. Kirjailijan mukaan on nimetty hänen syntymäkaupunkinsa Furmanov (aikaisemmin Sereda). [1] [2]


Dmitrii Furmanov

Born Oct. 26 (Nov. 7), 1891, in the village of Sereda, Nerekhta District, Kostroma Province, now the city of Furmanov, Ivanovo Oblast died Mar. 15, 1926, in Moscow. Soviet Russian writer.

The son of a peasant, Furmanov studied in the faculty of philology at Moscow University from 1912 to 1914. During World War I (1914&ndash18) he worked as a male nurse. In 1917 and 1918 he was a Socialist Revolutionary (SR) Maximalist subsequently he was an anarchist.

Furmanov took part in revolutionary events in Ivanovo-Voznesensk. In 1918 he became a member of the CPSU. From 1919 to 1921 he served in the Civil War as political commissar of the Cha-paev Division and head of the political administration of the Turkestan front. He directed the suppression of an anti-Soviet mutiny in the city of Vernyi (Alma-Ata) and also played a leading role in suppressing Wrangel&rsquos attempt to land forces in the Kuban&rsquo. In 1921, Furmanov moved to Moscow, and in 1924 he graduated from the department of social sciences at the First Moscow State University. In 1924 and 1925 he was secretary of the Moscow Association of Proletarian Writers (MAPP).

Furmanov began publishing in 1912, but his works appeared regularly only after the October Revolution of 1917. During the Civil War (1918&ndash20) he published mainly publicist writings. Fur-manov&rsquos most important works were the novellas Red Landing (1922) and In the Year 1918 (1923), the novels Chapaev (1923) and The Uprising (1925), and a cycle of essays on M. V. Frunze (1925) that dealt mainly with the Civil War. Chapaev, one of the best works of Soviet prose in the 1920&rsquos, realistically depicted the semipartisan peasant masses and conveyed the romantic spirit of the revolutionary struggle. The figure of Chapaev, portrayed in all its complexity, was an embodiment of the contradictory but innately heroic traits of the people. A highly successful depiction in the novel was that of Klychkov, the commissar who personified the pioneering role of the party and of the working class.

Furmanov&rsquos works were largely based on his own experiences and were marked by objectivity, clarity, and an analytic approach. They presented an authentic portrayal of the revolutionary enthusiasm of the masses and of the revolution&rsquos heroes. Furmanov&rsquos fictional works, articles, and literary criticism were of great importance in the establishment of socialist realism in literature. His works have been translated into the national languages of the USSR and into foreign languages and have been adapted for the stage and for motion pictures. The film Chapaev (1934), directed by G. N. Vasil&rsquoev and S. D. Vasil&rsquoev, received worldwide acclaim. Furmanov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.


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The Red Army’s most legendary commander

If you ask a Russian, or anyone else from other post-Soviet countries, who was the Red Army&rsquos most legendary commander, the answer in most cases will be the same &mdash Chapayev. At the same time, however, the respondent is most likely not to know any details of this celebrated military figure&rsquos biography, and has probably never seen the film about his exploits, and most definitely hasn't read the novel telling his life story.

Vasily Ivanovich Chapayev was not a leading Soviet military commander and, despite his personal bravery, he did not perform any exceptional feats to fire the imagination.

So, how did it happen that an ordinary Civil War commander became not just a cult hero for his generation but even now, 100 years later, his name is still remembered in modern Russia?

A hero of two wars

The military career of Vasily Chapayev (real name - Chepayev) began on the battlefields of World War I. There, he rose to the rank of sergeant-major and was awarded the Cross of St. George three times. In September 1917, just before the October Revolution, Chapayev joined the Bolsheviks.

Hailing from a "correct" peasant background and having much military experience and outstanding leadership qualities, Vasily Ivanovich quickly climbed the Red Army career ladder. During the Civil War, which raged through the country, he rose from regimental commander to divisional commander.

Vasily Chapayev (C) with Red Army commanders.

Later, Soviet propaganda would portray Vasily Ivanovich as a dashing cavalryman. In fact, owing to a wound that he sustained while fighting in World War I, Chapayev couldn&rsquot stay on a horse for long and preferred an automobile or a motorcycle with a sidecar. Also, he didn&rsquot command the cavalry but rather the infantry.

During the spring and summer of 1919 Chapayev took part in military operations against the White armies of the "Supreme Ruler of Russia", Alexander Kolchak, in the Volga region and South Urals. The Bolsheviks managed to halt the enemy offensive, as well as to seize the major industrial center of Ufa. At the same time, units of the 25th Rifle Division under Chapayev's command were the first to storm into the city.

Chapayev also took part in the suppression of peasant rebellions directed against the so-called &lsquosurplus appropriation system&rsquo &mdash the confiscation of surplus bread and other food for state needs. The USSR, however, preferred not to dwell about these usavory details.

The crossing of the Belaya river by he 25th Rifle Division under Chapayev's command, 1919.

Death of Chapayev

The circumstances of Chapayev's death remain the most mysterious episode of his biography. It is still not known exactly how the legendary commander died.

On Sept. 5, 1919, a thousand White Army Cossacks conducted a daring raid on the Red Army&rsquos rear positions, mounting a surprise attack on Chapayev's headquarters in the town of Lbishchensk (now Chapayev village in Kazakhstan).

"Before dawn, the enemy approached Lbishchensk from three sides. On the fourth, eastern, side was the River Ural. Telephone and telegraph lines of communication with the troops and with the city of Uralsk were cut. Some of the local Cossacks made their way into Lbischensk via back routes in order to fire from the rear and sow panic and death," according to the book, Chapayev. An Outline of His Life, and Revolutionary and Military Activities, written by the legendary commander's children, Alexander and Klavdia.

Georgy and Sergey Vasilyev/Lenfilm, 1934

The Red forces suffered a devastating defeat: 1,500 people died in the town and another 1,000 were either hacked to death in the steppe or drowned in the River Ural while trying to escape. According to the official version of events, this was how the celebrated commander died, having been hit by an enemy bullet in the middle of the river. According to another account, the wounded Chapayev was taken by boat to the other side where he died. There is also speculation that he may have been captured and executed. In any case, the remains of Vasily Ivanovich have never been found.

A legend is born

Chapayev&rsquos death wasn't glorious in any way &mdash more heroic and gallant senior commanders lost their lives in the war. But something occurred in 1923 that cemented Vasily Ivanovich's fame for generations to come.

In that year, Dmitry Furmanov's novel, Chapayev, dealing with the exploits of the dashing commander, was published. The author knew his hero well &mdash he had been a commissar in the 25th Rifle Division.

Vasily Chapayev (C) with a bandage and Dmitry Furmanov (on his right), 1919.

It is a curious fact that Furmanov and Chapayev had not been the best of friends. Quite the reverse &mdash they had a serious falling out caused by Vasily Ivanovich's advances to the commissar's wife. "I began to despise you just a few days ago when I realized you are a careerist and when I saw that your advances were becoming particularly brazen and insulted the honor of my wife&hellip" Furmanov wrote to Chapayev. "Your touching her left me with a certain feeling of revulsion. It was as if a white dove had been brushed against by a toad: I found it chilling and loathsome&hellip"

Not long before the massacre of Lbishchensk, Furmanov left the place where the division was stationed (that's what saved his life). There&rsquos evidence that before his departure the two men had reconciled their differences, and the heroic image of Chapayev that the writer created in his novel serves to confirm this.

Furmanov altered one letter in Vasily Ivanovich's real name, changing "Chepayev" to "Chapayev" saying that it sounded better. The new surname received such widespread popular acceptance that it was given official blessing. Even the commander's children had to amend their identity documents and get used to the idea of henceforth being called by a different last name.

A universally loved hero

Georgy and Sergey Vasilyev/Lenfilm, 1934

Chapayev was elevated to a new and much higher level of popularity by the eponymous 1934 film based on Furmanov&rsquos novel. The author had died in 1926 and did not live to see the premiere.

Even as the screenplay was being written, Stalin got involved. He personally ordered the addition of the love story between Vasily Ivanovich's assistant Petka and the machine gunner Anka.

"The Father of the Peoples" consciously contributed to the creation of the cult of deceased Civil War heroes. It was unwise to glorify those who had survived &mdash they could become serious rivals in the struggle for power indeed, many soon perished in the purges. The dead, on the other hand, presented no threat.

The film was a runaway success. More than 40 million people saw it within just a few years after its cinema release. Stalin himself saw Chapayev 38 times.

During World War II, Vasily Ivanovich became one of the most prominent figures of Soviet propaganda. One poster featured his image with the slogan: "We fight hard, we strike furiously, grandsons of Suvorov, children of Chapayev!"

In 1941, a short film, "Chapayev With Us!", was made in which the commander managed to swim across the River Ural. On reaching the opposite bank, he encounters World War II Red Army soldiers and makes an impassioned appeal to mercilessly strike the Nazi invader.

The hero of many a joke

As years passed, the figure of Chapayev lost its exalted status and spectators no longer cried during the scene of his death.

Nevertheless, he became firmly established in popular lore: Vasily Ivanovich became the hero of numerous jokes in which he permanently ends up in comic situations with his loyal assistant Petka and Anka the machine gunner. In this jocular guise he has been included as a character in by a dozen or so computer games.

Petka and Vasily Ivanovich 2: Judgment Day.

The image of the popular hero has also been used for a much more serious purpose. The legendary commander is one of the main protagonists of Viktor Pelevin's philosophical novel, Chapayev and the Void, which today has a cult following in Russia.

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History

The village of Sereda-Upino was known in the area of ​​the present city since the 1620s . In 1918 this was combined with several surrounding workers' settlements that were built near textile factories in the 19th century to form the city of Sereda .

On May 13, 1941, the name was changed to Furmanow in honor of the writer who was born here.

Population development

year Residents
1926 21,000
1939 36,062
1959 38,225
1970 40,155
1979 44.192
1989 46.182
2002 39,691
2010 36,144

Note: census data (1926 rounded)


Portrait of the writer D. A. Furmanov by Sergey Malyutin

The Great October Revolution died down. In the history of mankind, a new chapter has been opened, to write which victor enthusiasts filled with faith and decisiveness were called to write. It was necessary to solve difficult tasks – to rebuild a new state, to establish a new life and social relations, to create a new one that meets the tasks of the era, art. Academician of painting S. Malyutin gave all his creative powers, pictorial experience and burning soul to the revolution from its first days. Well-known in the art world of pre-revolutionary Russia, he made a great contribution to the development of Soviet painting.

S. Malyutin did not just paint, he also conducted active cultural, educational and organizational work. Among his other achievements was the organization of the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia, established in 1922. In the very first year of AHRR, Malyutin wrote one of his most significant paintings – “Portrait of the writer D. A. Furmanov”.

The great era requires the appropriate heroes, the people of the new time. D. A. Furmanov was just that – a man in whose image the ardent, dedicated and revolutionary revolutionary and writer, a representative of the spiritual world, the world of art, were inextricably joined together and complemented each other. Furmanov was the commissar of the legendary division of Chapaev, the writing of the novel about which he dedicated his post-revolutionary work. A modest and noble man, a courageous and brave warrior, a wise and talented writer – this is how the artist saw him. So he sought to show it, working on a portrait of the writer.

At the time of writing the picture Furmanov was only thirty-one. In a boyish way, the young writer is bright and spiritual: an open face, kind, staring eyes, eyes. Serious, he is sitting in front of the viewer in a calm, natural pose, putting his briefcase on his knees and holding a pencil in his right hand. Like a writer just a few minutes ago he was working on a novel and now he will return to creativity again. Warm, modest palette of colors and shades, soft forms without sharp outlines and edges, compositional balance – and before the viewer reveals a look filled with pure harmony.

In any portrait, the main thing is to correctly place accents. For Malyutin, an important primary task was to draw attention to the face and hands of the writer. The artist admires Furmanov’s proudly planted head with a clear open forehead, scattering eyebrows, a thin oval face, a beautifully contoured mouth and a strong chin. But admiration is caused not so much by physical beauty as by hiding behind the appearance of the lyrical hero of masculinity, unbending will and firm strength. Looking at only one portrait and not being able to be personally acquainted with Furmanov, the viewer will certainly see a person with a rich inner world, sincere, pure and heroic.

If a face reveals to the viewer Furmanov as a creative person, then his hands betray a tireless worker and an intrepid soldier in him. Carefully written broad shoulders, large strong hands are capable of holding not only a pencil, but, if necessary, both a shovel and a rifle.

The background of the painting, which is thrown over the shoulders of his overcoat, is shown by the artist in general, restrained in terms of color. And only a bright scarlet ribbon on the chest attracts the eye. This is the Order of the Red Banner. The award was not accidentally given out by Malyutin in the mean color of the general background – the combat commissar Furmanov was wounded at the front, but he did not leave work on the novel “Chapaev”.

Unfortunately, the fate of the writer measured a short life. Who knows what great works he would have written without leaving his life at the age of thirty-five?

Furmanov died four years after writing a portrait, at the age of thirty-five. In the memory of people he will remain a modest man, a talented writer and a courageous commissar. What he was like when he was alive, how Malyutin captured him.


A dynasty falls

The jokes of course appeared long after the war ended. While it was still raging, it was unprecedented in its savagery, with atrocities committed by both sides. One of the most brutal acts was the killing of the royal family. The Bolsheviks had originally planned to put the former Tsar on trial. Instead, Nicholas II, Empress Alexandra and their five children were shot in the early hours of July 17, 1918 in the basement of Ipatyev House in the city of Yekaterinburg.

The official version had it that the local council proposed a fast execution, fearing they would be freed by the approaching White forces. Yet, Leon Trotsky, one of the revolution’s leaders, wrote that Lenin personally ordered the killing, seeing the royals as a banner for the Whites to rally around. In August 2000 the royal family was canonised by the Russian Orthodox Church.


Dmitri Andreevich Furmanov

Dmitrij Andrejevics Furmanov ( orosz Дмитрий Андреевич Фурманов ., Tudományos átírási Dmitrij Furmanov Andreevič született október 26-án, július / november 7. 1891- Greg. A Sereda [1941 óta: Furmanov] † Március 15. 1926-os a Moszkva ) egy szovjet író és vörös biztos az orosz polgárháború idején.

Furmanov, aki iskolai napjait Ivanovo-Voznesenskben töltötte , 1912 szeptemberében kezdte a jogot a moszkvai egyetemen, amelyet hamarosan felhagyott egy történelmi-filológiai egyetem mellett. 1912-ben Furmanov első versei megjelentek az Ivanovsky listok című újságban . 1914-ben, a háború kitörése után Furmanov beiratkozott a Vöröskereszt tanfolyamaira , ahol megismerkedett leendő feleségével, Anna Nikitichna Steschenkóval . 1917-ben csatlakozott a társadalmi forradalmárokhoz, és egyúttal Ivanovo forradalmi állományának titkára lett, ahová a háború alatt visszatért. 1918-ban Furmanov csatlakozott a bolsevikokhoz, és feleségül vette Anna Steschenkót, 1919-ben először kapcsolatba lépett Vaszilij Ivanovics Tschapajew-val, és az orosz polgárháború idején Chapajev által vezetett 25. lövészhadosztály biztosa lett . Csapajev ugyanabban az évben elesett. 1920-ban Furmanovot Kazahsztánba és Üzbegisztánba delegálták, ahol részt vett a Fehér Hadsereg elleni harcokban . 1920 óta rendszeresen megjelennek általa történetek és színdarabok, amelyeket főleg szovjet folyóiratokban nyomtattak. Az egyik fő támogatója Maxim Gorky volt , akivel Furmanov baráti viszonyban állt. 1923-ban megkezdődött Furmanov fő művének, a Tschapajew című regénynek a kidolgozása , amely ugyanabban az évben Moszkvában jelent meg első változatban, és sűrítette Furmanov tapasztalatait Tschapajew vezetésével folytatott polgárháborújából. Hosszas és eredményes eszmecsere Isaak Bábellel arra az ötletre vezetett, hogy Csapajev filmjét készítsék . Furmanov 1926-os, agyhártyagyulladás okozta korai halála megakadályozta az 1934-es film megtekintését.

A Furmanow a Szovjetunió számára az NDK-ban épített szárazföldi hajó-sorozat , Dmitriy Furmanov osztály névadója .


Watch the video: Дмитрий Фурманов Мятеж. Аудиокнига