8 October 1943

8 October 1943

8 October 1943

War in the Air

Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 111: 174 bombers sent to attack industrial areas at Bremen, 55 to attack U-boat yards at Vegesack and 170 to attack the city of Bremen. Thirty aircraft lost.

War at Sea

German submarines U-419 and U-610 sunk in the North Atlantic

German submarine U-643 sunk south of Iceland

Japan

Tojo takes over the Ministries of Commerce and Industry



Extermination camp

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Extermination camp, German Vernichtungslager, Nazi German concentration camp that specialized in the mass annihilation (Vernichtung) of unwanted persons in the Third Reich and conquered territories. The camps’ victims were mostly Jews but also included Roma (Gypsies), Slavs, homosexuals, alleged mental defectives, and others. The extermination camps played a central role in the Holocaust.

The major camps were in German-occupied Poland and included Auschwitz, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka. At its peak, the Auschwitz complex, the most notorious of the sites, housed 100,000 persons at its death camp (Auschwitz II, or Birkenau). Its poison-gas chambers could accommodate 2,000 at one time, and 12,000 could be gassed and incinerated each day. Prisoners who were deemed able-bodied were initially used in forced-labour battalions or in the tasks of genocide until they were virtually worked to death and then exterminated.

The creation of these death camps represented a shift in Nazi policy. Beginning in June 1941 with the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Jews in the newly conquered areas were rounded up and taken to nearby execution sites, such as Babi Yar, in Ukraine, and killed. Initially, mobile killing units were used. This process was disquieting to local populations and also difficult for the units to sustain. The idea of the extermination camp was to reverse the process and have mobile victims—transported by rail to the camps—and stationary killing centres where large numbers of victims could be murdered by a greatly reduced number of personnel. For example, the staff of Treblinka was 120, with only 20–30 personnel belonging to the SS, the Nazi paramilitary corps. The staff of Belzec was 104, with about 20 SS personnel.

Killing at each of the centres was by poison gas. Chelmno, the first of the extermination camps, where gassing began on December 8, 1941, employed gas vans whose carbon-monoxide exhaust asphyxiated passengers. Auschwitz, the largest and most lethal of the camps, used Zyklon-B.

Majdanek and Auschwitz were also slave-labour centres, whereas Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor were devoted solely to killing. The Nazis murdered between 1.1 million and 1.3 million people at Auschwitz, 750,000–900,000 at Treblinka, and at least 500,000 at Belzec during its 10 months of operation. The overwhelming majority of the victims were Jews. Treblinka, Sobibor, and Belzec were closed in 1943, their task completed as the ghettos of Poland were emptied and their Jews killed. Auschwitz continued to receive victims from throughout Europe until Soviet troops approached in January 1945.


A Nazi Concentration Camp as seen from a nearby village. The smoke is from a burning pyre of corpses - Majdanek, Poland, October 1943 [1613x1200]

Hi!
As we hope you can appreciate, the Holocaust can be a fraught subject to deal with. While don't want to curtail discussion, we also remain very conscious that threads of this nature can attract the very wrong kind of responses, and it is an unfortunate truth that on reddit, outright Holocaust denial can often rear its ugly head. As such, the r/History mods have created this brief overview. It is not intended to stifle further discussion, but simply lay out the basic, incontrovertible truths to get them out of the way.

The Holocaust refers the genocidal deaths of 5-6 million European Jews carried out systematically by Nazi Germany as part of targeted policies of persecution and extermination during World War II. Some historians will also include the deaths of the Roma, Communists, Mentally Disabled, and other groups targeted by Nazi policies, which brings the total number of deaths to

11 million. Debates about whether or not the Holocaust includes these deaths or not is a matter of definitions, but in no way a reflection on dispute that they occurred.

Unfortunately, there is a small, but vocal, minority of persons who fall into the category of Holocaust Denial, attempting to minimize the deaths by orders of magnitude, impugn well proven facts, or even claim that the Holocaust is entirely a fabrication and never happened. Although they often self-style themselves as "Revisionists", they are not correctly described by the title. While revisionism is not inherently a dirty word, actual revision, to quote Michael Shermer, "entails refinement of detailed knowledge about events, rarely complete denial of the events themselves, and certainly not denial of the cumulation of events known as the Holocaust."

It is absolutely true that were you to read a book written in 1950 or so, you would find information which any decent scholar today might reject, and that is the result of good revisionism. But these changes, which even can be quite large, such as the reassessment of deaths at Auschwitz from

1 million, are done within the bounds of respected, academic study, and reflect decades of work that builds upon the work of previous scholars, and certainly does not willfully disregard documented evidence and recollections. There are still plenty of questions within Holocaust Studies that are debated by scholars, and there may still be more out there for us to discover, and revise, but when it comes to the basic facts, there is simply no valid argument against them.

Beginning with their rise to power in the 1930s, the Nazi Party, headed by Adolf Hitler, implemented a series of anti-Jewish policies within Germany, marginalizing Jews within society more and more, stripping them of their wealth, livelihoods, and their dignity. With the invasion of Poland in 1939, the number of Jews under Nazi control reached into the millions, and this number would again increase with the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Shortly after the invasion of Poland, the Germans started to confine the Jewish population into squalid ghettos. After several plans on how to rid Europe of the Jews that all proved unfeasible, by the time of the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, ideological (Antisemitism) and pragmatic (Resources) considerations lead to mass-killings becoming the only viable option in the minds of the Nazi leadership. First only practiced in the USSR, it was influential groups such as the SS and the administration of the General Government that pushed to expand the killing operations to all of Europe and sometime at the end of 1941 met with Hitler’s approval.

The early killings were carried out foremost by the Einsatzgruppen, paramilitary groups organized under the aegis of the SS and tasked with carrying out the mass killings of Jews, Communists, and other 'undesirable elements' in the wake of the German military's advance. In what is often termed the 'Holocaust by Bullet', the Einsatzgruppen, with the assistance of the Wehrmacht, the SD, the Security Police, as well as local collaborators, would kill roughly two million persons, over half of them Jews. Most killings were carried out with mass shootings, but other methods such as gas vans - intended to spare the killers the trauma of shooting so many persons day after day - were utilized too.

By early 1942, the "Final Solution" to the so-called "Jewish Question" was essentially finalized at the Wannsee Conference under the direction of Reinhard Heydrich, where the plan to eliminate the Jewish population of Europe using a series of extermination camps set up in occupied Poland was presented and met with approval.

Construction of extermination camps had already begun the previous fall, and mass extermination, mostly as part of 'Operation Reinhard', had began operation by spring of 1942. Roughly 2 million persons, nearly all Jewish men, women, and children, were immediately gassed upon arrival at Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka over the next two years, when these "Reinhard" camps were closed and razed. More victims would meet their fate in additional extermination camps such as Chełmno, but most infamously at Auschwitz-Birkenau, where slightly over 1 million persons, mostly Jews, died. Under the plan set forth at Wannsee, exterminations were hardly limited to the Jews of Poland, but rather Jews from all over Europe were rounded up and sent east by rail like cattle to the slaughter. Although the victims of the Reinhard Camps were originally buried, they would later be exhumed and cremated, and cremation of the victims was normal procedure at later camps such as Auschwitz.

There were two main types of camps run by Nazi Germany, which is sometimes a source of confusion. Concentration Camps were well known means of extrajudicial control implemented by the Nazis shortly after taking power, beginning with the construction of Dachau in 1933. Political opponents of all type, not just Jews, could find themselves imprisoned in these camps during the pre-war years, and while conditions were often brutal and squalid, and numerous deaths did occur from mistreatment, they were not usually a death sentence and the population fluctuated greatly. Although Concentration Camps were later made part of the ɿinal Solution', their purpose was not as immediate extermination centers. Some were 'way stations', and others were work camps, where Germany intended to eke out every last bit of productivity from them through what was known as "extermination through labor". Jews and other undesirable elements, if deemed healthy enough to work, could find themselves spared for a time and "allowed" to toil away like slaves until their usefulness was at an end.

Although some Concentration Camps, such as Mauthausen, did include small gas chambers, mass gassing was not the primary purpose of the camp. Many camps, becoming extremely overcrowded, nevertheless resulted in the deaths of tens of thousands of inhabitants due to the outbreak of diseases such as typhus, or starvation, all of which the camp administrations did little to prevent. Bergen-Belsen, which was not a work camp but rather served as something of a way station for prisoners of the camp systems being moved about, is perhaps one of the most infamous of camps on this count, saw some 50,000 deaths caused by the conditions. Often located in the Reich, camps liberated by the Western forces were exclusively Concentration Camps, and many survivor testimonies come from these camps.

The Concentration Camps are contrasted with the Extermination Camps, which were purpose built for mass killing, with large gas chambers and later on, crematoria, but little or no facilities for inmates. Often they were disguised with false facades to lull the new arrivals into a false sense of security, even though rumors were of course rife for the fate that awaited the deportees. Almost all arrivals were killed upon arrival at these camps, and in many cases the number of survivors numbered in the single digits, such as at Bełżec, where only seven Jews, forced to assist in operation of the camp, were alive after the war.

Several camps, however, were 'Hybrids' of both types, the most famous being Auschwitz, which was vast a complex of subcamps. The infamous 'selection' of prisoners, conducted by SS doctors upon arrival, meant life or death, with those deemed unsuited for labor immediately gassed and the more healthy and robust given at least temporary reprieve. The death count at Auschwitz numbered around 1 million, but it is also the source of many survivor testimonies.

Running through the evidence piece by piece would take more space than we have here, but suffice to say, there is a lot of evidence, and not just the (mountains of) survivor testimony. We have testimonies and writings from many who participated, as well German documentation of the programs. This site catalogs some of the evidence we have for mass extermination as it relates to Auschwitz. Below you'll find a short list of excellent works that should help to introduce you to various aspects of Holocaust study.


This Month in Physics History


Photo: wikimedia commons/acroterion

The first Radarange microwave oven weighed over 300 kg, had to be water cooled, and cost $52,000 in today's dollars. This model was installed on the nuclear-powered cargo ship Savannah.

In January 1947, commuters in New York City’s Grand Central Terminal took note of a fast-food vending machine, the Speedy Weeny, offering hot dogs cooked in a new invention: the microwave oven. Now a staple of the modern kitchen, it was the brainchild of Percy Spencer, a self-educated Maine farm boy with an insatiable curiosity about how the world works.

Born in Howland, Maine, in 1894, Spencer was just 18 months old when his father died. His mother, unable to cope as a single parent, left the boy’s upbringing to his aunt and uncle. Spencer’s uncle died when he was seven, so he and his aunt began traveling around New England, she working as an itinerant weaver and he working whatever odd jobs he could find. He later recalled that he had to “solve [his] own situation” during that difficult time, and that resiliency and “Yankee ingenuity” served him well in life.

His education was intermittent, too, and by the fifth grade he dropped out of school completely to work in a factory. When a local paper mill decided to install electricity four years later, he volunteered to help set up the new system, even though he knew nothing about the subject, and was just sixteen years old. Through a combination of experimentation and poring over textbooks at night, he ended up a highly skilled electrician.

Inspired by the heroic actions of the radio operators on board the sinking Titanic in 1912, Spencer became interested in the new wireless technology. He joined the Navy to become a radio operator, boning up on trigonometry, calculus, chemistry, physics, and metallurgy in his spare time. “I just got hold of a lot of textbooks and taught myself while I was standing watch at night,” he later recalled. When World War I ended, he joined the fledgling American Appliance Company (later changed to Raytheon), founded by physicist Charles Smith and engineers Lawrence Marshall and Vannevar Bush.

Early in his research career at the company, he noticed a small leak in one of his photoelectric tubes. Usually scientists discarded such tubes as defective, but Spencer was curious about what might be happening. He discovered that the leak actually increased the tube’s efficiency — an insight that proved to be a critical step in the development of the television cameras.

Then World War II broke out, and the company became responsible for building prototypes of combat radar equipment for the war effort. As a result, Spencer’s tube division at Raytheon grew from 15 employees to more than 5000. Early in the 20th century, a German inventor named Christian Hulsmeyer realized that reflected radio waves could reveal the direction and range of nearby ships, a handy safeguard for avoiding harbor collisions. Wartime research gave rise to the cavity magnetron, a high-frequency tube with multiple built-in resonant cavities for producing a high-power microwave beam. The magnetron enabled British radar systems to spot approaching German bombers.

Spencer figured out how to mass-produce the magnetrons in those systems. Originally the cavities had to be machined out of solid copper it took a skilled machinist weeks to complete just one. But Spencer found a much better way: He adapted a machine to stamp out thin cross-sections of the metal, stacked them, and then fused them to form the cavity via an oven with a conveyer belt.

Radar helped win the war, and for his microwave cavity assembly system, which vastly increased production, Spencer received the Navy’s highest civilian honor: the Distinguished Public Service Award.

Heating materials with high-frequency electromagnetic waves was first proposed in 1934, based on research at Bell Labs, which filed for a patent in 1937. One day, as Spencer stood near an active radar set, he noticed that a candy bar in his pocket had melted, and realized that microwaves might be used to cook food. To test his hypothesis, he placed popcorn kernels near the magnetron. As he suspected, they began to pop. Next he cut a hole in the side of a kettle and put an egg in it before directing microwaves through the hole. It worked again, except the egg exploded, splattering the face of a skeptical colleague who was peering into the kettle at the wrong time.

Following up on these simple experiments, Spencer soon realized that a rectangular metal box would make a fine resonant cavity for cooking. Recognizing the commercial potential, Raytheon filed a patent for a microwave cooking process on October 8, 1945, and the Radarange hit the market in 1946.

The invention didn’t catch on at first, hampered by public fears of microwave radiation, and by the sheer cost and size. Those microwave ovens were huge, nearly six feet tall and more than 750 pounds, and cost $5000 — the equivalent of more than $50,000 in today’s currency. The first countertop home model went on sale in the 1950s for a more affordable $495, and by 1997, fully 90% of U.S. households owned a microwave oven.

Spencer died in 1970, having never earned more for his microwave than the $2 bonus Raytheon typically awarded employees for their patented inventions, although all told he racked up 300 patents during his career there. But he reaped plenty of recognition, including an honorary doctorate from the University of Massachusetts and a Raytheon building named in his honor. Above all, Vannevar Bush said that Spencer “earned the respect of every physicist in the country, not only for his ingenuity, but for what he has learned about physics by absorbing it through his skin.”

Further Reading:

Scott, Otto J. The Creative Ordeal: The Story of Raytheon. Atheneum, 1974.

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8 October 1943 - History

HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANT EVENTS
� Tim Vasquez

Much of this wouldn't have been possible without the detailed Annotated Pictorial History of Clark Air Base (1899-1986) by David L. Rosmer. I highly recommend it to researchers and historians. Credit also goes out to Lauren Sobkoviak, Mike Ward, Beau E Gros, and numerous sources in print and on the Internet, which unfortunately are too many and sometimes too obscure to list here.

Clark gets its name from Maj. Harold M. Clark, of the U.S. Army Signal Corps. Born in Minnesota and raised in Manila, he was the first American to fly in Hawaii. Clark died on May 2, 1919 in a seaplane crash in Panama and is now buried in the Arlington National Cemetery. Fort Stotsenberg gets its name from Col. John M. Stotsenberg who died April 23, 1899 in a battle in Bulacan province, and is also buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

1898
Spain cedes the Philippines to the U.S. in the Treaty of Paris for $20 million. Philippine revolutionaries turn their hostilities onto American colonial forces.

1899
On February 6 the U.S. Senate voted to annex the Phillipines. Americans fought fragmented Philippine forces in the Battle of Angeles, which began on August 13. This led to their permanent presence in the Talizundoc area of Angeles City (what is now the Lourdes Sur barangay), in order to establish control over the central plains of Luzon. Hostilities generally ended November 5.

1902
The U.S. Army studies relocating their post from Angeles City to a fertile plain on what was later Clark Air Base, which supposedly had better grass for their horses.

1903
President Roosevelt signs an executive order on September 1 establishing 7700 acres as Fort Stotsenberg, with Camp Wallace and Camp John Hay being established in November. Fort Stotsenberg was centered on what was Clark's parade ground in modern years.

1906
The first flagpost at Fort Stotsenberg is commissioned on September 16 near the modern 13 AF headquarters.

1908
An executive order expands Fort Stotsenberg from 7700 to 156,204 acres, covering much of modern-day Clark and the mountainous region to the north.

1912
In March Lieutenant Frank Lahm heads the Philippine Air School on Fort Stotsenberg with one aircraft. The first concrete buildings (the modern 13 AF headquarters) and a gymnasium are built.

1917
Five aircraft hangars are constructed at what was the motorpool in modern times.

1918
The first dependent school, Leonard Wood School, is opened at Clark.

1919
Construction of a small runway began along what in modern times was Dyess Highway as it passed by the flightline. The airfield was officially designated Clark Field. Three additional hangars were built. In September a series of tent dormitories was built, and in November the 3rd Aero Squadron was formed, giving rise to the popular "3" that would tag many organizations at Clark in later years (3 TFW, etc). The first plane to arrive was a DeHavilland DH-4.

1920
The first permanent enlisted dormitory is built.

1925
The second dependent school, Worchester School, is opened on November 8.

1941
The Japanese launch an attack on Clark Air Base on December 8, destroying dozens of aircraft. Clark was evacuated on December 24.

1942
On April 9 American forces fell on Bataan and Corregidor, leading a few days later to the brutal Bataan Death March from Bataan to San Fernando (about 20 miles southeast of Clark). Japanese forces maintain possession of Clark Field.

1944
American forces begin air raids on Japanese occupation at Clark in October, continuing for four months and damaging over 1500 Japanese planes.

1945
On January 31, American forces regained possession of Clark Field after three years of Japanese control. However a few Japanese soldiers still held tough in the nearby mountains, and sometimes sneaked onto base at night to sabotage American planes.

1946
The 13th Air Force is transferred to Clark in January, except for a brief period between May 1946 and August 1947 when it was at Fort William McKinley on Luzon. The Philippines was given independence on July 4. Major improvements were underway, including a new chapel, golf course, the NCO (Top 3) Club, and more.

1947
The U.S. and Philippines sign the Military Bases Agreement on March 14 which guaranteed American possession of U.S. bases in the Philippines for 99 years. The Clark Field Dependents School was opened July 7.

1948
On April 15 the first Philippine president, Manuel A. Roxas, died of a heart attack after speaking at the old Kelly Theater.

1949
In May the facilities at Fort Stotsenberg and Clark Field were transferred to the U.S. Air Force, and from then on the entire base became known as Clark Air Base. The Air Force decided to consolidate all its cemeteries, including the one on the modern day golf course, and moved them to the current location near the main gate. The Silver Wing was built this year.

1950
The first school, [Original] Wurtsmith School is opened in August in Bldg 3100 near what was the modern day 1961 CG compound (near Auto Sales).

1951
On August 30 the U.S.-Philippine Mutual Defense Treaty is signed, which still remains in effect today.

1953
The new Kelly Theater was opened.

1954
The Airmen's Club (Lower 4 Club, or Coconut Grove) was opened, as well as the new post office near the present-day BX.

1955
A brush fire on Lily Hill reveals the remains of two Japanese planes. The Bamboo Bowl stadium is built, while the old chapel in the hospital area is torn down in May.

1956
U.S. Vice President Nixon visits the Philippines, and formally acknowledges Philippine sovereignty over American bases in the country. However the U.S. continued to retain control for nearly 23 more years.

1960
Construction began on the new Regional Medical Center and was opened four years later.

1961
In April Wagner High School is opened.

1964
Clark entered the Vietnam War effort in March as KC-135 tankers staged from Clark and refuelled fighters enroute to Laos. On May 11, a C-135B (serial 61-0332 of the 1501 ATW, 44 ATS, Travis AFB) carrying an Air Force band from Hawaii crashed in heavy rain 1500 ft short of Clark's runway 02, killing 79 (including 1 American on the ground in a taxi). The 200-bed Regional Medical Center was opened April, costing only $4.5 million.

1966
The large 6-story Chambers Hall building, containing over 300 rooms for bachelor and transient officers, was opened. The Rusk-Ramos agreement signed on September 16 revised the 1947 Military Bases Agreement to expire in 25 years: 1991, an ominous coincidence.

1967
In August Grissom Elementary School is opened (known as Wurtsmith Hill School until Nov 14 1968).

1968
Late-night attacks against American servicemen led to both Clark and Angeles being placed on curfew in August. Demonstrations flared to a boiling point on October 4. The new Base Operations building was opened.

1970
Wurtsmith Elementary School is opened in August, eventually being the home of over 1100 students at any given time.

1971
Filipino employees went on strike March 3 for the first time. The walkout lasted three days, and another strike followed on July 25, this time lasting 15 days. This was at a time when anti-American sentiment was at a peak.

1972
President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, which also acted to suspend elections. Martial law remained in place until 1981. Clark's first C-9A aircraft arrived in February. Lily Hill Middle School was opened September 18.

1973
The first group of Vietnam POWs arrives February 12, with a second group following on February 18.

1974
MacArthur Elementary School is opened in August. On November 28 Typhoon Irma (not to be confused with the 1981 storm of the same name) hit, with winds at Clark clocked at 83 kt (95 mph) out of the northwest at 1 pm, and a pressure measured at 979 mb (28.91") at 3 pm. This was the strongest typhoon to hit Clark.

1975
Clark serves as a staging point for Vietnamese fleeing the North Vietnamese invasion. The first planeload, consisting of orphans, arrived April 5. As many as 2,000 refugees at a time were housed in a tent city in the Bamboo Bowl during April and May. A total of 30,082 refugees and 1565 orphans were processed through Clark.

1977
On the evening of May 21 at 1:35 am, a mild magnitude 5.7 earthquake hit just northeast of Clark and was felt by many.

1978
Typhoon Rita hit Clark during the wee hours of October 27, bringing 58 kt (67 mph) winds but causing little damage. On December 25 hundreds of politicians rallied against Marcos in a carefully-written statement seeking to remove American military presence from the Philippines.

1979
A revised 1947 Military Bases Agreement was ratified on January 7 and executed at Clark Air Base February 16 to transfer command and security of Clark and other American bases to the Philippine government. The size of the Clark reservation was reduced from 156,204 acres to 131,000 acres, with the base itself remaining at 9155 acres. On March 25, Clark's third major labor strike occurred.

1980
On March 31 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit about 80 miles northeast of Clark at 8:41 pm, but was distinctly felt at the base. In October Flying Tigers established the first scheduled 747 contract service to/from Clark, replacing Flying Tigers and Trans International DC-8 service. This continued for about a decade until Hawaiian Air L-1011's got the contract.

1981
On January 17 President Marcos "removed" martial law, though this had little effect as his political opponents still remained in exile. Later in the year, FEN television switched channels from 8 to 17 (?). Construction began late in the year on the new commissary, but it would be a couple of years before it opened. On November 24 Typhoon Irma (not to be confused with the 1974 storm of the same name) struck, bringing wind gusts to 50 mph at Clark and causing minor damage (mostly downed tree limbs).

1983
On August 21, Ninoy Aquino, one of President Marcos' political opponents, returned from ten years of exile and was shot on his arrival in Manila, precipitating a gradual collapse of the Marcos administration and the economy. The Military Bases Agreement was revised further in 1983. Starting October 3, unionized Filipino employees went on strike for four days over pay issues. On December 31, live television programming from AFRTS new satellite network began at Clark.

1984
On March 12, the U.S. was permitted to begin flying its flag at the base cemetery. On March 29 a new Youth Center was opened inside the original Kelly Theater. In April the largest commissary in the Air Force opened between the Post Office and NCO Open Mess. It was completed at a cost of $6.2 million. In June the Original Wurtsmith School (not the new one) was demolished. In October am HH-53C helicopter crashed in heavy rain during a nighttime training exercise near the base, killing all occupants.

1985
In March the new Family Support Center opened. On the evening of April 23 a magnitude 6.3 earthquake hit just northeast of Clark at 12:15 am. The opening of the new Golf Club House occurred in August on top of what was once the old Fort Stotsenberg cemetery.

1986
On January 1 the longtime NCO (Top Hat or Top 3) Club near its Lily Hill location moved to a new location near the Silver Wing. On February 25 after massive outcry over a rigged election, President Marcos is forced out of office. Helicopters from Clark's 31 ARRS pick him up at his Presidential palace, and flew him to Clark where he transferred to a C-9A and was flown to Hawaii. On March 22 at 9 p.m., civilian employees went on strike, forming large picket lines outside the main gates of all American bases in the Philippines. Ultimately the strikers blocked Clark's gates on March 25, preventing anyone from getting on or off base except those who were resourceful enough to sneak across base fences. The 3 CSG commander placed Angeles bars off-limits to servicemen, which pitted strikers against local merchants. Finally after a scuffle between strikers and merchants the strike was broken at 4:30 pm on March 30. On May 31 the longtime Clark AB Officers Open Mess (CABOOM) was closed for demolition and rebuilding, moving temporarily to the old NCO (Top Hat) Club. On September 16 the new nationalist government rejected extension of the Military Bases Agreement. On December 29 at 11:49 pm a mild magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck along the coast west of Clark.

1987
On April 25 at 8:16 pm a strong earthquake, at magnitude 6.5, hit just north of Clark. On October 28 three servicemen were killed in simultaneous attacks near Clark AB by teams of the New People's Army (NPA) brandishing .45 caliber pistols. The NPA is the strongarm of the Philippine communist party.

1988
On the evening of October 25 Typhoon Ruby brought 46 kt (53 mph) winds to Clark AB and 69 kt (79 mph) winds to Subic Bay, making it the strongest storm at Clark since Rita in 1978.

1989
On September 26 shortly before Vice President Quayle's visit to Clark, NPA terrorists killed Ford Aerospace employees William Thompson and Donald Buchner at a roadblock near Camp O'Donnell. Terrorist tension reached a climax in December.

1990
Clark's worst earthquake occurred at at 3:26 pm on July 16. It registered magnitude 7.6 and was centered about 80 miles northeast of the base. Baguio was devastated, with over 2000 killed and a million homeless.

1991
In April pilots reported seeing smoke emanating from Mount Pinatubo, and by June it was clear that a major volcanic eruption was imminent. Evacuation of Clark AB began on June 10. The first "big" eruption hit June 12. On June 14, the base was drenched in a sea of ash, and the biggest eruption followed at 5:55 am on June 15 just as Typhoon Yunya was making its approach. The Philippine Senate rejected an extension of the Military Bases Agreement, and it expired on September 16. The U.S. Air Force formally transferred Clark in its entirety to the Philippines on November 26, ending its century-long presence in the region.

1992
The U.S. Navy withdrew the last of its forces from Subic Bay on October 1.

1993
On April 3 President Fidel Ramos approved the Clark Special Economic Zone and established the Clark Development Corporation.

1995
The Clark International Airport Corporation was established to manage the airfield facilities.

1996
Limited air service from Clark to Hong Kong began.

1997
The last U.S. forces leave the Philippines on November 24.


1899: A U.S. Army field artillery unit at its Angeles City post.


1919: 3 Aero Squadron logo made of rocks and the "main drag" along the enlisted housing tents.


1937: Looking west on Fort Stotsenberg, nestled around the parade ground.


1944: Clark pilots during World War II consisted essentially of the Japanese Imperial forces. Here Clark's Japanese Air Forces commander addresses a group of pilots.


1945: Hangared Japanese planes at Clark began suffering heavily at the hands of American bomber attacks toward the later years of WWII.


1952: Clark's first major BX was in this star-shaped building. It became the Arcade while the new modern BX was built in the 1960s. Looking south along Leary Avenue toward the accompanied airmen housing area.


1954: Pilots and ground crew race to their F-86 during a practice alert at Clark.


1965: The trailer park near the Silver Wing was established in the 1960s to house a surge of transient personnel during the Vietnam War.


1970: A new elementary school opens in the Hill Housing Area: the new Wurtsmith Memorial Elementary School.


1973: A C-141 arrives at Clark from Hanoi with POWs during Operation Homecoming.


1979: A sight familiar to many -- Clark's main gate at Angeles City.


1979: The year 1979 was a pivotal point in Clark's history as the Philippine government began assuming administration of the base.


1984: The largest commissary in the Air Force opens at Clark after over two years of construction plagued with delays.


1986: A weeklong strike at Clark's main gate severely crippled base activities.


A Visual History of Air Force One

Air Force One isn't a specific plane, it's the air traffic control designation given to any Air Force aircraft with the President of the United States on board. The designation was first used when an Eastern Airlines commercial flight entered the same airspace as a plane carrying President Eisenhower, and both planes had the same call sign. Air Force One has been the designation for the president ever since, but the history of presidents on planes goes back a lot further than that.

First Flight

Theodore Roosevelt (who else?) was the first president to fly in an aircraft. Or ex-president, rather. Roosevelt had already left office by the time he took to the skies in this Wright Flier&mdashthe very first heavier-than-air powered aircraft&mdashon October 11, 1910. Archibald Hoxsey, who worked for the Wright brothers, had the honor of piloting the former president.

The President Needs a Plane

The Douglas Dolphin was the first aircraft specifically designated as a transport for the president. One of these amphibious planes was modified for President Franklin D. Roosevelt and designated RD-2 by the U.S. Navy. It remained at the ready from 1933 to 1939, though there is no evidence FDR actually flew in the plane.

FDR Goes to Europe

Still, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the first sitting president to fly. In 1943, a Boeing 314 Clipper flying boat named the Dixie Clipper carried him 5,500 miles in three legs to attend the Casablanca Conference where he met with Winston Churchill and Charles de Gaulle to discuss the next phase of World War II.

Air travel was the preferred method of transatlantic transportation due to the ongoing threat of German submarines during the Battle of the Atlantic. It was at the Casablanca Conference that the Allies declared they would accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers.

The Sacred Cow

Toward the end of the War, the Secret Service outfitted a C-54 Skymaster for transporting the ailing FDR. Nicknamed the Sacred Cow, the C-54 had a radio telephone, a sleeping area, and even a retractable lift to hoist Roosevelt and his wheelchair into the plane. President Roosevelt flew on the modified aircraft only once before his death. The Sacred Cow transported him to the Yalta Conference in February 1945.

The Independence

Harry S. Truman flew aboard the Sacred Cow after Roosevelt's death in April 1945&mdashhe was on the plane when he signed the National Security Act of 1947, which established the office of Secretary of Defense and created the U.S. Air Force as a distinct branch of the military (it was formerly the U.S. Army Air Forces).

Later that year, Truman replaced the Sacred Cow with a C-118 Liftmaster he named Independence after his hometown in Missouri. This was the first presidential transport aircraft with a unique exterior&mdashthe nose of the aircraft was painted with a bald eagle's head.

Air Force One

In 1953, Eastern Airlines commercial flight 8610 flew into the same airspace as a plane carrying President Dwight D. Eisenhower with the call sign Air Force 8610. To avoid future confusion, the Air Force established the unique air traffic control designation "Air Force One" for any aircraft carrying the President of the United States.

President Eisenhower introduced four propeller-driven aircraft to serve as presidential transports: two Lockheed C-121 Constellations nicknamed Columbine II and III, and two Aero Commander aircraft, the smallest planes to ever serve as Air Force One. The first official flight of Air Force One carried President Eisenhower in 1959.

The First Presidential Jet

Toward the end of the Eisenhower Administration, the Air Force decided that prop planes were just not going to cut it for the president anymore. Air Force One would henceforth be a jet aircraft. SAM (Special Air Missions) 970, a Boeing 707, replaced President Eisenhower's C-121 Constellations in 1959. SAM 971 and 972 were added to the fleet shortly after.

A Boeing 707-120 with modified interior and communications equipment, called VC-137, took Eisenhower on his 22,000-mile "Flight to Peace" goodwill tour when he visited 11 Asian nations over the course of 19 days in December 1959. The jet made the trip in half the time that the Columbine aircraft would have.

SAM 26000 and 27000

John F. Kennedy traveled in SAM 970, 971 and 972 on multiple occasions, but in October 1962, the U.S. Air Force purchased a long-range 707, the Boeing C-137 Stratoliner, to become the new presidential transport aircraft: SAM 26000. President Kennedy famously had the red and gold livery of the plane changed because he thought it looked too regal. The plane used a more modest polished aluminum design with blue and white instead, and aircraft designated for presidential use have mimicked the look ever since.

The most famous moment aboard SAM 26000 was Lyndon B. Johnson taking the oath of office after the assassination of President Kennedy, an event captured in this iconic photo.

President Johnson used the plane for a trip to South Vietnam during the war, and President Nixon flew on SAM 26000 during his historic trip to China in 1972&mdashthe first time a U.S. president ever visited the People's Republic. SAM 26000 stayed in service until the Clinton administration, though the plane was replaced as the primary presidential aircraft by another VC-137, SAM 27000, in 1972 during the Nixon administration.

In 1974, when Air Force One was flying President Nixon into Syria, two Syrian MiG fighter jets flew up to act as escorts. However, no one informed the pilot of Air Force One, and he immediately took evasive maneuvers including a dive that sent staffers on the aircraft sprawling. The U.S. Air Force alerted the pilot of Air Force One that the MiGs were escorts and not hostile interceptors shortly after the encounter.

Nixon boarded SAM 27000 shortly after resigning the presidency. The pilot of the aircraft at the time, Colonel Ralph Albertazzie, was forced to contact air traffic control to report that the call sign for the plane had changed from Air Force One to SAM 27000, as Gerald Ford was sworn in as president with Nixon still in flight. According to the New York Times, Albertazzie radioed in while flying over Jefferson County, Missouri: "Kansas City, this was Air Force One. Will you change our call sign to SAM 27000?" Air traffic control responded: "Roger, SAM 27000. Good luck to the president."

SAM 27000 flew every subsequent President of the United States except for Barack Obama. On August 29, 2001, it flew George W. Bush from San Antonio to Waco, Texas, for its final flight.

Executive One, Marine One, Army One and Navy One

The aircraft carrying the United States President isn't always referred to as Air Force One&mdashspecifically when it is not an aircraft operated by the Air Force. President Nixon is the only president to have flown on Executive One, the designation for a regularly scheduled civilian flight that has a sitting president on board. Nixon and his family flew on a United Airlines DC-10 from Washington Dulles International Airport to Los Angeles International Airport in December 1973 to "set an example for the rest of the nation during the current energy crisis," according to the administration.

Other branches of the armed forces get to transport the president from time to time as well. Helicopters operated by the U.S. Marine Corps receive the designation Marine One when they carry the POTUS. The Army assisted with helicopter transport for the president prior to 1976, using the rarely seen designation Army One. A Bell UH-13J Sioux was the first helicopter used to transport a sitting president when it flew President Eisenhower to his summer home in Pennsylvania in 1957.

The Navy first had the honor of flying the president, and of using the call sign Navy One, in May 2003. An S-3B Viking operated by the "Blue Wolves" of the VS-35 carrier squadron flew President George W. Bush to the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the coast of California, making him the first president to land on an aircraft carrier in a plane, requiring an arrested landing.

In a unique operation carried out in March 2000, President Clinton flew to Pakistan aboard an unmarked Gulfstream III that was not designated Air Force One. A C-17 Globemaster III used the call sign Air Force One, without the president on board, as it flew the same route a few minutes behind the Gulfstream III to act as a decoy.

Boeing 747

The Air Force decided the president needed new planes to replace the aging 707s during the Reagan Administration, though the pair of 747s that replaced SAM 26000 and 27000 were not ready for service until George H. W. Bush took office. Production of the first Boeing 747-200B to serve as Air Force One was delayed so additional work could be done to protect the aircraft from the effects of an electromagnetic pule (EMP), either from a nuclear blast or as a direct attack on the plane's electronics.

The VC-25s&mdashtwo 747s modified by the military for presidential transport&mdashcontain secure telephone and computer communications systems so the president can continue to conduct operations while in flight. The aircraft also have an office for the president, a conference room, and private quarters for the president and the first lady.

Immediately after the attacks of 9/11, George W. Bush boarded SAM 28000 and took off from Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport in Florida. An airliner neared Air Force One shortly after takeoff and ominously failed to respond to air traffic control's attempts to radio the plane (it turns out the plane's transponder was mistakenly switched off). Colonel Mark Tillman, the senior pilot of Air Force One at the time, took no chances and flew his aircraft over the Gulf of Mexico, requesting "fighters on the wing." The airliner did not follow Air Force One.

The two VC-25s remain the primary aircraft for presidential transport to this day.


Dow Jones History Chart from 1941 to 1960:

Dow Jones industrial average (Djia) graph from 1941 to 1960 shows, Dow Jones chart shows 2 strong bull market and moderate bull market. First,bull market Dow Jones index gained 128 percent and Second, bull market Dow jones index gained 354.74 percent.

Even though this 20 years are characterized by Korean War, Chinese civil war, cold war, Dow Jones climbed up almost 500 percent.

Data source:Yahoo Finance

1.Bull market from 1942 to 1946 :Dow jones chart show its first strong bull market from 1942 to 1946. This bull market was 1492 days old that makes it one of the longest bull market in Dow jones’s history. During this period Dow Jones industrial average made 128 percent bullish upward start from 92.7 point.

2.Bull market from 1949 to august 1956: Bull market from 1949 to 56 is 2nd largest bull market of US stock market history. During this period, Dow Jones industrial average chart moved 160 to 524 points. That was over 200 percent move during this period.

3.Cross 500 points March 1956: Dow Jones index achieved a milestone by crossing historic 500 points in March 1956 and closed above that point.

4.Highest point: Dow Jones reached its peak point 688.2 in January 1960 among this two decades duration.

5.Bull market 1958-59: Dow Jones chart moved 63 percent during the 3 rd bull market and market moved from 416 to 679 point during this phrase.


Current Events October 31, 1943

The Japanese are | withdrawing before allied invaders of Treasury island, the high command announced Sunday, Treasury (Mono) has-only about 300 Japanese on it, and these began fleeing as', soon as the American and New Zealand ,amphibious troops landed there .Wednesday.

The Salt Lake City Tribune
Salt Lake City, Utah, Sunday Morning, October 31, 1943
Russ Open Siege of the Crimea

Sweeping Drive
Seals Nazis'
Escape Route

Capture of Geniehesk Carries Reds
To Northern Border Tip
Race 22 Miles, Seize 150 Towns

•*•-*• Russia (Official)—By Associated Press
LONDON, Oct. 30—
Russian troops sweeping across th« Nogaisk steppe reached the edge of the Crimea at its northeastern
entrance Saturday and simultaneously raced to within 22 miles of its northwestern door at Perekop, the last escape route for the large German Crimean forces.
In one of the most spectacular drives of the war the Russians thus were ready to seal off the great peninsula and within a. matter of hours lay siege to the. hundreds of thousands of Germans estimated to be still quartered there.
The battle of the Crimea was. on. he northaastern entrance to the Crimea was reached with the capture of Gcnichesk, while northwestward a second column striking directly toward Perekop captured
the. town of Askanlya Nova., traly 22 miles away.
The Russians advanced up to 22 miles in their' day's drive and swept up a total of :50 more tovma on the desert steppe as they prepared to choke off the Crimea at its this, vulnerable neck.
Sealing-, off the peninsula, with hundreds of thousands of Germans caught in the trap appeared to be only a matter of hours as German resistance broke.
56 Miles in Week
To take Genlchesk th« Russians had advanced 56 miles in exactly a week from, the capture of Melitopol
and reached the shores of the Sivash or "Putrid" sea. formed by a thin bar of land cutting off the eastern shore of the Crimea from the Sea of Azav.
While General

Fifth Army Jumps Barrier
in Drive
on Italy Line
*»-»• Allies (Official)
Exclusive New York Times-Salt Lake Tribune
By Milton Bracker

ALLIED HEADQUARTERS, Algiers, Oct. 30 —
General Mark Clark's combined Fifth army has hurdled the stubborn barrier of the Regia canal and occupied Mondragone, while further inland other allied units have overwhelmed Pietremelara' and swept to Pietravairano, which dominates the vital Vairano road junction three miles west.

Vairano is also threatened by British-American troops moving up from the south and are now within two miles of the city, while Ailano and Tano remain just beyond the invaders' grasp. Meanwhile, on the Eighth
army .front, General Bernard Montgomery's British -..Canadian troops took Montremitro ' and probed German defenses with aggressive patrol actions, while rain, which continued to hamper the ground forces, did not prevent a large 'force of United States Flying Fortresses from surging far north in Italy to raid railroad yards at Genoa for the first time from this theater. .

.This most important Italian port has been attacked often by the United States Eighth air force from England, but never before from the Mediterranean.
Tactical bombers were also able to,operate in close support of ground troops to a greater extent than had been' possible for several, days. The. Fifth army's seizure of Mondragone found the little town near the site of ancient Sinuessa, which the Saracens razed in the tenth century, literally a deserted village.
Although Mondragone had been regarded as the coastal anchor of the transpeninsular German front extending toward Via Venafro, it developed that werhmacht units holding Mondragone were only engaged in the final stage of a rearguard action and the enemy apparently never planned a serious stand in the town itself.

Japs Flee as Allies
Land on Island
By Associated Press
ALLIED HEADQUARTERS IN
THE SOUTHWEST, PACIFIC,
Sunday, Oct. 31—
The Japanese are | withdrawing before allied invaders of Treasury island, the high comrnand announced'Sunday, Treasury (Mono) has-only about 300 Japanese on it, and these beganfleeing as', soon as the American and New Zealand ,amphibious troops landed there .Wednesday.
Sunday's communique also announcedthe sinking by allied planes of a troop-laden-vessel, off Buka on northern Bougainville. That is on the opposite side of the base from the .allied invasion scenes at Treasury and Choiseul.
The hard hit Japanesp air force put in a belated appearance, sending dive bombers against the Treasury invaders.. .Twelve of the planes were shot down. Eleven small -Japanese boats were strafed off Choiseul, the island southeast of Bougainville where sea-borne paratroops landed Thursday.


What&rsquos So Special About the 1943 Copper Penny?

According to the American Numismatic Association, the 1943 copper–alloy cent is one of the most idealized and potentially one of the most sought–after items in American numismatics. Nearly all circulating pennies at that time were struck in zinc–coated steel because copper and nickel were needed for the Allied war effort.

Approximately 40 1943 copper–alloy cents are known to remain in existence. Coin experts speculate that they were struck by accident when copper–alloy 1–cent blanks remained in the press hopper when production began on the new steel pennies.

A 1943 copper cent was first offered for sale in 1958, bringing more than $40,000. A subsequent piece sold for $10,000 at an ANA convention in 1981. The highest amount paid for a 1943 copper cent was $82,500 in 1996.

Because of its collector value, the 1943 copper cent has been counterfeited by coating steel cents with copper or by altering the dates of 1945, 1948, and 1949 pennies.

The easiest way to determine if a 1943 cent is made of steel, and not copper, is to use a magnet. If it sticks to the magnet, it is not copper. If it does not stick, the coin might be of copper and should be authenticated by an expert.

To find out about coin experts in your area, you may call the American Numismatic Association at (719) 632–2646.

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United States Mint – Connecting America through Coins


Watch the video: 1943. Серия 7 2013 @ Русские сериалы